|Scientific Name:||Scarus vetula|
|Species Authority:||Bloch & Schneider, 1801|
Pseudoscarus gnathodus Poey, 1867
Scarus acutus Poey, 1860
Scarus cuzamilae Bean, 1891
Scarus nigrescens Meek & Hildebrand, 1928
Scarus roseiventer Fowler, 1944
Scarus superbus Poey, 1860
|Taxonomic Notes:||Westneat and Alfaro (2005) recognize the Scarini as a tribe within the family Labridae. The genera Chlororus and Scarus are two distinct monophyletic lineages (Smith et al. 2008).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Rocha, L.A., Choat, J.H., Clements, K.D., Russell, B., Myers, R., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P.|
|Reviewer(s):||McIlwain, J. & Craig, M.T.|
This species is widely distributed in the western North Atlantic, and is common. Even though it is caught in the multispecies fisheries, there are no major threats known to this species. It is listed as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||The species is known from Bermuda and Florida (USA) to Venezuela.|
Native:Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Aruba; Bahamas; Barbados; Belize; Bermuda; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (Saba, Sint Eustatius); Cayman Islands; Colombia; Costa Rica; Cuba; Curaçao; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Haiti; Honduras; Jamaica; Martinique; Mexico; Montserrat; Nicaragua; Panama; Puerto Rico; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Martin (French part); Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Trinidad and Tobago; Turks and Caicos Islands; United States; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Atlantic – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is common throughout its range (L. Rocha pers comm. 2009).|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is reef associated from 1-25 m. It is found in shallow, clear coral and rocky reefs. It feeds on algae. It is a protogynous hermaphrodite. It is often seen in groups of one terminal male with several young adults, most of which are probably females. |
In Bermuda, the maximum size recorded was 44 cm (TL) and the maximum age was 20 years (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009).
|Use and Trade:||This species is caught in commercial and artisanal fisheries.|
This species is caught in multi-species fisheries throughout its range. Even though fisheries on these and other medium to large-sized parrotfish species in the Caribbean has been steadily increasing, there is no apparent global decline in the population size (Friedlander and Beets 2008). There are however, severe population declines in reefs close to densily populated areas around Haiti and Jamaica (Hawkins and Roberts 2004).
Parrotfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reefs, while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. Although the majority of the parrotfishes occur in mixed habitat (primarily inhabiting seagrass beds, mangroves, and rocky reefs) approximately 78% of these mixed habitat species are experiencing greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and habitat quality across their distributions. Of those species that occur exclusively in coral reef habitat, more than 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% of coral reef loss and degradation across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of habitat loss and degradation on these species populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that depend on live coral reefs for food and shelter especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats. Furthermore, coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for some corallivorous excavating parrotfishes that play major roles in reef dynamics and sedimentation (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).
|Conservation Actions:||This species is present within several conservation areas throughout the Caribbean. Fisheries for parrotfishes are permanently closed in Bermuda.|
|Citation:||Rocha, L.A., Choat, J.H., Clements, K.D., Russell, B., Myers, R., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P. 2012. Scarus vetula. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T190698A17791465.Downloaded on 25 March 2017.|
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