Gonostoma denudatum 

Scope: Europe
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Stomiiformes Gonostomatidae

Scientific Name: Gonostoma denudatum Rafinesque, 1810
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Bristlemouth
Gonostoma denudata Rafinesque, 1810

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern (Regional assessment) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2013-10-15
Assessor(s): Kobyliansky, S., Herrera, J. & de Sola, L.
Reviewer(s): Harwell, H.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Comeros-Raynal, M.
European Regional Assessment: LC

Gonostoma denudatum is distributed from the subtropical to temperate North Atlantic and the Mediterranean. This species has a low frequency of occurrence in the Mediterranean. Gonostoma denudatum exhibits diel vertical migrations and is found at depths of 400–700 m by day, and 100–200 m by night. While G. denudatum is a prey item of both the Sowerby's beaked whale and the Atlantic bluefin tuna, it appears to make up a negligible percentage of either species' diet. This species is not utilized in European waters. There are no major threats to this species although, it is taken as by-catch in deep-water bottom trawls targeting Red Shrimp. It is listed as Least Concern. 

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Gonostoma denudatum is known primarily from the Atlantic Ocean, where it is widespread. In the northeastern Atlantic Ocean, G. denudatum is known from Portugal and the Azores south to Madeira and the Canary Islands (Badcock 1984, Carneiro et al. 2014). It is also known from the Mediterranean Sea (Badcock 1984), including the Hellenic Seas (Papaconstantinou 1988). The depth range for this species is 100–700 m (Badcock 1984).
Countries occurrence:
Albania; Algeria; Croatia; Cyprus; Egypt (Egypt (African part), Sinai); France (Corsica, France (mainland)); Gibraltar; Greece (East Aegean Is., Greece (mainland), Kriti); Israel; Italy (Italy (mainland), Sardegna, Sicilia); Lebanon; Libya; Malta; Monaco; Montenegro; Morocco; Portugal (Azores, Madeira, Portugal (mainland), Selvagens); Slovenia; Spain (Baleares, Canary Is., Spain (mainland), Spanish North African Territories); Syrian Arab Republic; Tunisia; Turkey
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Atlantic – eastern central; Atlantic – northeast; Mediterranean and Black Sea
Additional data:
Lower depth limit (metres):700
Upper depth limit (metres):100
Range Map:190471-1

Population [top]

Population:In south Sardinian waters, this species was found to be an inconsequential component of the deep-sea fish assemblage with a frequency of occurrence of 1% reported at a depth range of 995 m (Follesa et al. 2011). A 2010 study conducted in the Mediterranean caught 65 specimens off the Strait of Messina in Italian waters; the specimen collection occurred before sunrise (Bataglia et al. 2010). In the Greek waters of the Eastern Ionian Sea, G. denudatum was reported to have a frequency of occurrence of 1.9% in depths between 500–700 m (Mytilineou et al. 2005). In addition, the species was reported to be uncommon in the Tyrrhenian Sea, and rare between the French island of Corsica and the Balearic Islands of Spain between 40–45°N and in the Ionian Sea (Goodyear et al. 1972). This species is relatively rare (one specimen) in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Kobylianski et al. 2010). There is a single record (16 specimens) in the Gulf of Cadiz bottom trawl surveys from one fishing operation over 20 years (J. Gil Herrera pers. comm. 2013). In the Spanish Mediterranean, this species is uncommon (but this could be attributed to the sampling method) (L. Gil de Sola pers. comm. 2013). 

Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Gonostoma denudatum exhibits diel vertical migrations; juveniles and adults are found at depths of 400–700 m by day, and at 100–200 m by night (Badcock 1984). This species reaches a maximum size of 14 cm SL (Quéro 1990). The family Gonostomatidae consists of primarily mesopelagic and bathypelagic oceanic species. Sexual dimorphism and/or hermaphroditism is present in many species (Harold in Prep 2013). Gonostoma denudatum is a prey item of the Sowerby’s beaked whales (Mesoplodon bidens) stranded in the Azores islands from 2002–2009; though, its numerical frequency in the stomach of this whale species was found to be inconsequentially low (Pereira 2011). It is also a prey item of the commercially important Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) in the central Mediterranean; similarly, its numerical frequency in the stomach of this tuna was found to be inconsequentially low (Battaglia et al. 2012). In the Atlantic, this species favors waters affected by Mediterranean outflow currents, such as the Azores (Fock et al. 2002).

The maximum recorded size of this species is 25 cm TL from bottom trawl surveys in the Gulf of Cadiz (ARSA) (J. Gil pers comm. 2013). Lengths of this species range from 18–22 cm TL in the Mediterranean (L. de Sola pers comm. 2013).

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is not utilized in European waters.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Gonostoma denudatum is taken as bycatch in deep-water bottom trawls targeting Red Shrimp (Ragonese et al. 2001). However, there are no major threats to this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for G. denudatum. However, this species’ range overlaps with Marine Protected Areas (World Database of Protected Areas, accessed April 2014).

This species was assessed as Data Deficient in the 2007 Mediterranean Assessment (Abdul Malak et al. 2011, IUCN 2011).

Citation: Kobyliansky, S., Herrera, J. & de Sola, L. 2015. Gonostoma denudatum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T190471A45126631. . Downloaded on 19 August 2018.
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