|Scientific Name:||Tylomelania kruimeli|
|Species Authority:||von Rintelen & Glaubrecht, 2003|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Köhler, F. & Rintelen, T.|
|Reviewer(s):||Böhm, M. & Collen, B.|
|Contributor(s):||Dyer, E., Soulsby, A.-M., Whitton, F., McGuinness, S., De Silva, R., Milligan, H.T., Kasthala, G., Herdson, R., Thorley, J., McMillan, K. & Collins, A.|
Tylomelania kruimeli has been assessed as Critically Endangered. The extent of occurrence for this species is less than 100 km² and it is only found in one location, Lake Mahalona, within which the species is patchily distributed and experiencing a decline in habitat due to the mining activities in the area.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to Lake Mahalona, Sulawesi in Indonesia (Von Rintelen and Glaubrecht 2003). The lake covers an area of 24.4 km². This species only occurs on rocks where there is wood and it is highly associated with the Pandanus species, so it is patchily distributed within the lake (von Rintelen pers. comm. 2010).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is abundant in Lake Mahalona (Von Rintelen and Glaubrecht 2003).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This lentic species is found on hard substrates such as rocks, sunken wood and Pandanus roots in Lake Mahalona, from the surface to a depth of several metres (Von Rintelen and Glaubrecht 2003).|
The major threat to this species, and the other endemic molluscs in the Malili Lakes region, comes from a large nickel mine at Soroako, located south of neighbouring Lake Matano. Substantial clearing of native forest has already occurred in the area. Logging, combined with increased land use and habitat modification (e.g., channel construction, impoundment projects) is causing soil erosion and sedimentation in the lakes. In extreme cases entire streams have disappeared or become ecologically 'dead' (Herder et al. 2006).
A further threat is presented by contaminated effluents from the mine, which drain into Lake Matano and from there into Lake Mahalona, increasing sulphur levels in both lakes (Herder et al. 2006).
Finally, the endemic fauna of the Malili Lakes is threatened by the introduction of exotic fish species, with unknown but potentially serious consequences (Herder et al. 2006).
There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. The company in charge of the Soroako nickel mine, PT INCO, has expressed a desire to minimize negative environmental impacts to the lakes, for example by establishing buffer zones between mining areas and rivers, and abandoning canal construction (Herder et al. 2006).
It is recommended that Lake Mahalone is protected and further measures put in place to minimize the impacts of the nearby nickel mine, for example heavy metal deposition, and maintain the near-pristine state of this unique habitat.
|Citation:||Köhler, F. & Rintelen, T. 2011. Tylomelania kruimeli. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 27 March 2015.|
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