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Alasmidonta viridis

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA MOLLUSCA BIVALVIA UNIONOIDA UNIONIDAE

Scientific Name: Alasmidonta viridis
Species Authority: Rafinesque, 1820
Common Name/s:
English Slippershell Mussel, Brook Wedge Mussel
Taxonomic Notes: Based on analysis of the gene sequences, Bogan et al. (2008) argue for the elevation of the subgenus Pressodonta (Simpson, 1900) to create the new combination Pressodonta viridis. However, this work is awaiting publication in a peer-reviewed journal.

A list of synonyms for this species can be found on The MUSSEL project web site (Graf and Cummings 2011).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2011-07-22
Assessor/s: Cummings, K. & Cordeiro, J.
Reviewer/s: Böhm, M. & Collen, B.
Contributor/s: Dyer, E., Soulsby, A.-M., Whitton, F., McGuinness, S., De Silva, R., Milligan, H.T., Kasthala, G., Thorley, J., Herdson, R., McMillan, K. & Collins, A.
Justification:
Alasmidonta viridis has been assessed as Least Concern due to its wide distribution and lack of threat processes impacting its global population. However, this species is listed as Threatened in many states and is Vulnerable under American Fisheries Society classification and populations demonstrate local declines, thus requiring careful future monitoring.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: In the United States this species occurs in Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Missouri, Ohio, Tennessee and Wisconsin. NatureServe (2009) have classified it as Critically Imperilled in North Carolina, New York, Iowa, Arkansas, Alabama and Virginia and it is Presumed Extirpated in Kansas. In Canada, this species occurs in Ontario.

This species is widespread in the eastern United States and is distributed in the lower and middle sections of the St. Lawrence River Systems; Lake Huron, St. Clair and Erie; and the upper Mississippi River system, south to Ohio, Cumberland, and Tennessee River systems (Clarke 1981).
Countries:
Native:
Canada (Ontario); United States (Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas - Possibly Extinct, Kentucky, Michigan, Missouri, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Tennessee, Virginia, Wisconsin)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: There is insufficient population information available for this species. However, it is considered to be stable throughout most of its range (NatureServe 2009), although regional declines have been observed. It is considered Critically Imperilled in Alabama, Arkansas, Iowa, New York, North Carolina and Virginia,  Imperilled in Missouri, Illinois, Wisconsin and Michigan, Vulnerable in Indiana, Ontario, and Tennessee, and Apparently secure/Secure in Ohio and Kentucky under Federal State Listings (NatureServe 2009).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is typically found in creeks and headwaters of rivers, but has also been reported in larger rivers and in lakes (Clarke 1981). This species may prefer a substrate composed of sand and fine gravel, although in stretches where there is continuous current it will thrive in a mud and sand bottom among the roots of aquatic vegetation (Parmalee and Bogan 1998).

Host fish include the Banded Sculpin (Cottus carolinae) and probably the Mottled Sculpin (Cottus bairdi) and Johnny Darter (Etheostoma nigrum) (Watters 1994).
Systems: Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is threatened at a local level and considered to be endangered in some states. Although it has been found to be intolerant of impoundment, it is unlikely that any major threat is impacting upon the species globally (NatureServe 2009). This species is likely to be susceptible to typical threats faced by freshwater bivalves, such as siltation, pollution etc.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species has been given a NatureServe Global Heritage Status Rank of G4G5 - apparently secure/secure (NatureServe 2009), and was assigned an American Fisheries Society Status of Special Concern (1 Jan 1993). Williams et al. (in press) rank it as Vulnerable (K. Cummings pers. comm. 2010).

There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species, however, in places its distribution coincides with protected areas (NatureServe 2009). Further research is recommended to determine the species' abundance and taxonomy (some populations may be separate conservation unit).
Citation: Cummings, K. & Cordeiro, J. 2011. Alasmidonta viridis. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 April 2014.
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