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Halichoeres brasiliensis

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA ACTINOPTERYGII PERCIFORMES LABRIDAE

Scientific Name: Halichoeres brasiliensis
Species Authority: (Bloch, 1791)
Common Name(s):
English Brazilian wrasse
Synonym(s):
Halichoeres irideus Starks, 1913
Halichoeres irideus Starks, 1913
Julis principis Valenciennes, 1839
Julis principis Valenciennes, 1839
Labrus brasiliensis Bloch, 1791
Labrus brasiliensis Bloch, 1791
Taxonomic Notes: This species was previously identified as H. radiatus, but recent genetic research revealed that Brazilian populations belong to a valid species now recognized as H. brasiliensis (Rocha 2004).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Data Deficient ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2008-03-12
Assessor(s): Rocha, L., Francini-Filho, R., Craig, M., Ferreira, B., Rodrigo L. Moura & Ferreira, C.E.
Reviewer(s): Liu, M. & Carpenter, K.E.
Justification:
This species is widespread and common throughout the Brazilian coast. However, it is intensively fished in both recreational and artisanal fisheries. Large individuals are uncommon in areas that are intensively fished, and are not often observed outside of reserves that enforce no-take zones. More research is needed to determine the impact of fisheries on this species, as current fishing activities may not be sustainable. It is listed as Data Deficient. This species should be reassessed when more fisheries and population data is available.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is endemic to Brazil, and is found from Maranhão to Santa Catarina, including Trindade Island (Menezes et al. 2003)
Countries:
Native:
Brazil
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Atlantic – southwest
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Currently, population size/trends have not been assessed. This species is not present in FAO global production estimates. It is considered common. It is commonly caught by artisanal fisheries, and terminal "large" males are not often observed in areas of intensive fishing.

Aquarium trade data for Brazil show 310 individuals exported in 2007 (IBAMA 2007).
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is reef associated and is found from one to 60 m. It inhabits biogenic and rocky reefs (Rocha and Rosa 2001). Large individuals are found at depths of 10 m or more, juveniles in areas as shallow as tide pools (Rocha and Rosa 2001). It feeds on benthic invertebrates (Gasparini and Floeter 2001).

There is very little known on the biology of this species.

The maximum size was recorded at 50 cm (TL) (C. Ferreira pers comm. 2009).
Systems: Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is utilized in artisanal and recreational fisheries. The big fishes are included as target in the artisanal fishing, both line and hook and spearfishing, all along its distribution (C. Ferreira pers. comm. 2009). In Brazil, 310 specimens were exported for the aquarium trade in 2007 (IBAMA 2007).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is intensively fished in artisanal fisheries, primarily by hook and line and spearfishing. It is taken in gillnets as part of the multi-species fisheries. This species is also important in sport fisheries, which may be a threat for many recreationally fished species (Lewin et al. 2006). It is not often observed outside of reserves which enforce no-take zones.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is present within several marine protected areas in Brazil. However, less than 5% of this species range is included within Brazil's no-take marine reserves.

More research is needed on the impact of recreational and artisanal fisheries on this species, as it is unknown if current fishing practices are sustainable.

It is recommended that MPAs are established within the species range, and legislation to regulate fisheries. Community management initiatives and awareness for managing artisanal fisheries is also needed.

Citation: Rocha, L., Francini-Filho, R., Craig, M., Ferreira, B., Rodrigo L. Moura & Ferreira, C.E. 2010. Halichoeres brasiliensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 October 2014.
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