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Halichoeres melanurus

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA ACTINOPTERYGII PERCIFORMES LABRIDAE

Scientific Name: Halichoeres melanurus
Species Authority: (Bleeker, 1851)
Common Name(s):
English Hoeven's wrasse, Pinstriped wrasse, Tail-spot wrasse, Three-eyed wrasse, Yellow-tailed wrasse
Synonym(s):
Halichoeres chrysotaenia (Bleeker, 1853)
Halichoeres chrysotaenia (Bleeker, 1853)
Halichoeres hoeveni (Bleeker, 1851)
Halichoeres hoeveni (Bleeker, 1851)
Halichoeres hoevenii (Bleeker, 1851)
Halichoeres hoevenii (Bleeker, 1851)
Julis chrysotaenia Bleeker, 1853
Julis chrysotaenia Bleeker, 1853
Julis hoevenii Bleeker, 1851
Julis hoevenii Bleeker, 1851
Julis melanurus Bleeker, 1851
Julis melanurus Bleeker, 1851
Platyglossus melanurus (Bleeker, 1851)
Platyglossus melanurus (Bleeker, 1851)
Taxonomic Notes: There is taxonomic confusion between H. chrysotaenia in the Pacific and H. vrolikii in the Indian Ocean.

H. chrysotaenia is considered to be a synonym of H. melanurus, a W. Pacific species (J. Randall pers. Comm. 2008). This relationship was based on an initial phase specimen of H. chrysotaenia collected in Java near Jakarta. The initial phases of H. vrolikii and H. melanurus, both W. Pacific species, are nearly indistinguishable. H. melanurus is a Pacific species based on the terminal phase and H. vrolikii is the terminal phase of its East Indian Ocean sister species. Since H. melanurus is considered a Pacific species based on the terminal phase, it is unlikely that H. chrysotaenia is the initial phase of H. melanurus. This species requires genetic research to positively link the type material of H. chrysotaenia to either H. melanurus or H. vrolikii (R. Myers pers. Comm. 2009).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2008-06-12
Assessor(s): Cabanban, A., Choat, J.H., Pollard, D. & Myers, R.
Reviewer(s): Sadovy, Y. & Carpenter, K.E.
Justification:
This species is collected for the aquarium trade and its habitat is degraded in parts of its range. However, it is common and wide-ranging, protected by blanket regulations on trade by exporting countries, and it occurs in a number of marine protected areas in parts of its distribution. It is listed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found in the western Pacific, from the Ryuku Islands, southern Japan (Masuda et al. 1984) south to the Great Barrier Reef in the east and the Kimberlys in the west of Australia (Randall et al. 1990) and east to Samoa (Wass 1984) and Tonga (Randall et al. 2003). Western limits are most likely eastern Java, Indonesia. It is replaced by Halichoeres vrolikii in the Indian Ocean (Myers 1999). It is also known from Thailand and Nha Trang, Vietnam (R. Myers pers. comm. 2009).
Countries:
Native:
American Samoa (American Samoa); Australia; Fiji; Indonesia; Japan; Kiribati; Malaysia; Marshall Islands; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Nauru; New Caledonia; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Samoa; Solomon Islands; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; Tonga; Tuvalu; Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Wallis and Futuna
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is uncommon (found at only five out of 19 sites) in Banda Flores, Indonesia (Mous 2002).

On the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, an estimated mean density of 0.8 individuals from twenty 50 m X 5 m transects was recorded in underwater fish visual surveys (Yusuf et al. 2002).
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is found mostly on shallow coral reefs and rocky shores (Westneat 2001). The duration of the larval stage was recorded at 22.1 (SD 1.6) days, range: 20-24 m (Victor 1986). It feeds on small invertebrates such as polychaetes, copepods, isopods and forams (Myers 1991).
Systems: Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is collected for the aquarium trade. Market prices range from USD 4.00 (small, medium), 5.50 (large), and 6.00 (jumbo) per live fish.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats known for this species. However, there are human impacts on coral reefs in parts of its distribution (Hodgson 1999, Burke et al. 2002).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no specific conservation measures in place for this species. Its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range. The Marine Aquarium Council also sets standards and certification for species collected for the aquarium trade. In Australia, there are regulations in place for the trade of this species.

Citation: Cabanban, A., Choat, J.H., Pollard, D. & Myers, R. 2010. Halichoeres melanurus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 02 October 2014.
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