|Scientific Name:||Symphodus rostratus|
|Species Authority:||(Bloch, 1791)|
Lutjanus rostratus Bloch, 1791
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Craig, M.T., Nieto, A., García, M. & Allen, D.J.|
This species is present throughout the Mediterranean Sea and the western part of the Black Sea, and there are no known major threats to its populations. Although there is no specific population information available, its populations are thought to be stable. This species is listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||This species is present throughout the whole Mediterranean basin and the western part of the Black Sea (Golani et al. 2006). The upper depth limit is 30 metres, while the lower depth limit is one metre (Louisy 2005).|
Native:Albania; Algeria; Bulgaria; Croatia; Cyprus; Egypt (Egypt (African part), Sinai); France (Corsica, France (mainland)); Gibraltar; Greece (East Aegean Is., Greece (mainland), Kriti); Israel; Italy (Italy (mainland), Sardegna, Sicilia); Lebanon; Libya; Malta; Monaco; Montenegro; Morocco; Romania; Slovenia; Spain (Baleares, Spain (mainland), Spanish North African Territories); Syrian Arab Republic; Tunisia; Turkey (Turkey-in-Asia, Turkey-in-Europe)
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Mediterranean and Black Sea
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is common and widespread in the Mediterranean Sea and it has also been recorded from the western part of the Black Sea (Louisy 2005). The current population trend of this species is stable.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This species lives mainly over Posidonia seagrass beds, though it is also present on algal-covered rocky reefs (Golani et al. 2006). It frequently occurs in large aggregations and feeds on small benthic organisms such as molluscs, crustaceans and echinoderms. Spawning takes place in spring, when the male builds and guards a nest of algae, in which one or more females lay adhesive eggs (Golani et al. 2006), and the breeding season seems to be from March to June (Louisy 2005). The age at maturity of this species is one year, its longevity of about 3-4 years and its maximum size is 13 cm (SL) or 14 cm (TL) (Louisy 2005, Golani et al. 2006).
This is not a migratory species and they tend to form aggregations year-round (Golani et al. 2006).
|Use and Trade:||This species may be sold for food when caught in local artisanal fisheries, where it is probably mainly used in fish soup.|
|Major Threat(s):||There are no known major threats to this species, although it may be utilized as food when caught in local artisanal fisheries. However, its shallow water seagrass and rocky reef habitats may be threatened with habitat degradation, as a result of urban and agricultural development and waste disposal along the adjacent coastlines, pollution (D. Pollard pers. comm. 2008) and the invasive introduced tropical algae Caulerpa taxifolia (Verlaque and Fritayre 1994, Villele and Verlaque 1995).|
There are no specific conservation measures in place for this species. Its distribution overlaps with several marine protected areas within its range. However, there is a need for conservation actions, regarding resource and habitat protection of seagrass and rocky algal reef habitats, where control of the invasive species Caulerpa taxifolia needs to be undertaken as well, enabling this way restoration of the habitats. Creation of awareness must be carried out in order to prevent water pollution, habitat degradation and control of the invasive algae species. To this matter, policies and regulations need to be strengthened.
More research is also needed regarding the species' population size, distribution and trends, life history and threats. Monitoring is also needed regarding population, harvest and habitat trends.
|Citation:||Pollard, D. 2014. Symphodus rostratus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 August 2015.|
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