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Notolabrus parilus

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA ACTINOPTERYGII PERCIFORMES LABRIDAE

Scientific Name: Notolabrus parilus
Species Authority: (Richardson, 1850)
Common Name(s):
English Brown spotted wrasse, Orange spotted wrasse
Synonym(s):
Labrichthys bostockii Castelnau, 1873
Labrichthys bostockii Castelnau, 1873
Labrichthys convexus Castelnau, 1875
Labrichthys convexus Castelnau, 1875
Labrichthys edelensis Castelnau, 1873
Labrichthys edelensis Castelnau, 1873
Labrichthys parila (Richardson, 1850)
Labrichthys parila (Richardson, 1850)
Labrichthys punctulata Günther, 1862
Labrichthys punctulata Günther, 1862
Labrichthys rubra Castelnau, 1875
Labrichthys rubra Castelnau, 1875
Labrichthys unicolor Castelnau, 1875
Labrichthys unicolor Castelnau, 1875
Pseudolabrus bostockii (Castelnau, 1873)
Pseudolabrus bostockii (Castelnau, 1873)
Pseudolabrus convexus (Castelnau, 1875)
Pseudolabrus convexus (Castelnau, 1875)
Pseudolabrus edelensis (Castelnau, 1873)
Pseudolabrus edelensis (Castelnau, 1873)
Pseudolabrus parila (Richardson, 1850)
Pseudolabrus parila (Richardson, 1850)
Pseudolabrus parilus (Richardson, 1850)
Pseudolabrus parilus (Richardson, 1850)
Pseudolabrus punctulatus (Günther, 1862)
Pseudolabrus punctulatus (Günther, 1862)
Pseudolabrus ruber (Castelnau, 1875)
Pseudolabrus ruber (Castelnau, 1875)
Pseudolabrus unicolor (Castelnau, 1875)
Pseudolabrus unicolor (Castelnau, 1875)
Tautoga parila Richardson, 1850
Tautoga parila Richardson, 1850
Taxonomic Notes: For taxonomic treatment see Russell (1988).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2008-06-12
Assessor(s): Pollard, D., Russell, B. & Fairclough, D.
Reviewer(s): Sadovy, Y. & Carpenter, K.E.
Justification:
This species has a wide distribution and is common over most of its range. There are no major threats although it is caught in the recreational fishery and as bycatch of giant crab and rock lobster trap fishery which appears to be relatively minor. It is listed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is known from Victoria (Queenscliffe), South Australia and southern Western Australia, from the Recherche Archipelago to Shark Bay in the north.
Countries:
Native:
Australia
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Indian Ocean – eastern
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is abundant in shallow coastal waters in western Australia.

Semi-quantitative underwater visual census (UVC, timed swims) of Hutchins (2001) found this species to be abundant at eight locations surveyed between Kalbarri (ca 28°S, 114°E) and Esperance (34°S,122°E) in Western Australia. Quantitative UVC (measured transects) within the Jurien Bay Marine Park (ca 30-31°S, 115°E) confirmed this species to be abundant at that location (Fairclough et al. in prep). Harvey et al. (2004) also found this species to be abundant over reefs at Esperance.
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is common on rocky reefs in shallow water, down to about 20 m. It also occurs in seagrass beds on the west coast of Australia (Hyndes et al. 2003, Harvey et al. 2004, Bivoltisis 2007, Fairclough et al. in prep.)

A large species, to about 312 mm SL. It is sexually dichromatic. It is a protogynous hermaphrodite and is an indeterminate multiple spawner (Lek et al. in prep.). It spawns in the Austral winter and early spring on the mid-west coast of Australia. Spawning occurs in both reef and seagrass habitats. Males have small testes relative to most gonochorists, suggesting pair-spawning activity is likely, as for many labrids. Sexual maturity of individuals over reefs occurring at approximately three years and sex change at six (from logistic regression analyses, maximum age recorded: 10.4 years) Smaller size and age at maturity and sex change over seagrass than reefs, coupled with a shorter life span (or emigration).
Systems: Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is caught as by-catch and in recreational fisheries.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Recreational fishing and increasing human population. It is also a non-target bycatch species of rock lobster and giant crab fishery (South Australia). It is likely to be bycatch species of West Coast Demersal Scalefish Fishery in Western Australia (although Labrids are reported as one group, i.e. wrasse). Notolabrus parilus suffers from barotrauma-related injuries and does not survive well after capture in waters > 10 m.

On the west coast of Australia, a substantial increase in the number of wrasse released by boat-based recreational fishers in a 2005/06 survey by Sumner et al. (2008) may be related to the increase in human population size since the last survey in 1996/97. While there is some evidence that recreational fishers are retaining more wrasse than previously (Harvey 2004), Sumner et al. (2008) indicate that the number retained has declined since 1996/97. Stock assessments of indicator species (includes other large target species) on the west coast of Australia demonstrate overfishing of those species is occurring in this region (Wise et al. 2007). There is potential for increases in the catches of labrids such as N. parilus to compensate, however, the flesh of this species is not typically considered to be of high quality. Fisheries of related wrasse species in South Australia for a live reef fish trade saw rapid declines in stock when unmanaged (Smith et al. 2003).

Recreational fishers in Western Australia often use wrasse as bait, when caught incidentally, for larger target species. There is some evidence that recreational fishers are beginning to retain this species for food, as a result of declines in the stocks of typically targeted species (Harvey 2004).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no conservation measures directed at N. parilus specifically. However, in Western Australia, South Australia and Victoria (the range of N. parilus), several marine parks have recently been established or are being established within its range and comprise “no fishing” areas. However, those areas typically represent a relatively small proportion of the area of those MPAs. Furthermore, trophic linkages to this species are relatively poorly understood and thus flow-on effects of protection afforded to its predators by those “no fishing” zones is unknown. The West Coast Demersal Scalefish Fishery (in Western Australia) has recently undergone restructuring to become a managed commercial fishery. Changes to the management of the commercial fishery and restrictions to the recreational sector aim to reduce effort in the fishery by 50 % and reduce catches overall by a similar amount.

Citation: Pollard, D., Russell, B. & Fairclough, D. 2010. Notolabrus parilus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 July 2014.
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