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Thalassoma amblycephalum

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA ACTINOPTERYGII PERCIFORMES LABRIDAE

Scientific Name: Thalassoma amblycephalum
Species Authority: (Bleeker, 1856)
Common Name(s):
English Bluehead wrasse, Bluntheaded wrasse, Parrotfish, Rainbow wrasse, Two-tone wrasse
Synonym(s):
Julis amblycephalus Bleeker, 1856
Julis amblycephalus Bleeker, 1856
Julis melanochir Bleeker, 1857
Julis melanochir Bleeker, 1857
Pseudojulis trifasciatus Weber, 1913
Pseudojulis trifasciatus Weber, 1913
Pseudojuloides trifasciatus (Weber, 1913)
Pseudojuloides trifasciatus (Weber, 1913)
Thalassoma amblycephala (Bleeker, 1856)
Thalassoma amblycephala (Bleeker, 1856)
Thalassoma amblycephalus (Bleeker, 1856)
Thalassoma amblycephalus (Bleeker, 1856)
Thalassoma melanochir (Bleeker, 1857)
Thalassoma melanochir Fowler, 1904
Thalassoma melanochir (Bleeker, 1857)
Thalassoma melanochir Fowler, 1904

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-03-04
Assessor(s): Cabanban, A. & Pollard, D.
Reviewer(s): Craig, M.T. & Carpenter, K.E.
Justification:
This species is widespread in the Indo-Pacific, and is considered common in many parts of its range. It is collected for the aquarium trade, but there are no major threats known to this species. It is listed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found from Somalia (Sommer et al. 1996) to South Africa in the west (Randall 1986) to the Line, Marquesas, and Tuamoto islands in the east, northwards to southern Japan (Senou et al. 2007), southwards to Papua New Guinea (Jenkins 2002), to the Rowley Shoals and Lord Howe Island, Australia, northern New Zealand and Rapa Islands.
Countries:
Native:
American Samoa (American Samoa); Australia; British Indian Ocean Territory; Cambodia; China; Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Comoros; Cook Islands; Fiji; French Polynesia; Guam; India; Indonesia; Japan; Kenya; Kiribati; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Marshall Islands; Mauritius; Mayotte; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nauru; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Niue; Norfolk Island; Northern Mariana Islands; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Réunion; Samoa; Seychelles; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Tokelau; Tonga; Tuvalu; United States Minor Outlying Islands; Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Wallis and Futuna; Yemen
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Atlantic – southeast; Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – western central
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is considered common in many parts of its range, such as in the Philippines and in Indonesia.

In the Great Barrier Reef, 93 +/-75 individuals were found in 104 sites at inter-reef and deep locations (Cappo et al. 2007). This species is common in the Solomon Islands at depths of 0-15 m (Allen 2006) and in the Banda Islands, Indonesia where it was found in 15 out of 19 sites surveyed (Mous 2002). The maximum number found using Baited Remote Underwater Video was two individuals in the green zone of the Magnetic Shoals (site 14) of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia (Speare and Stowar 2007).
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is found over shallow lagoon and seaward reefs at depths between 1-15 m (Lieske and Myers 1994, Myers 1991) and over reef flats (Westneat 2001). Prey items are mainly crustacean zooplankton (Myers 1991). Feeding habits include selective plankton-feeding (Sano et al. 1984) and the species was observed to be a diurnal carnivore in the Glorieusis Islands, western Indian Ocean (Durville et al. 2003).

Juveniles, females and young males have similar colour patterns, but those of larger males are different and often variable (Kuiter 2002). Small juveniles are sometimes found under ledges together with sea urchins, and they tend to form schools at an early age, often staying close to the reef substrate. Adults are often found in large schools of mixed sexes, feeding in midwater on zooplankton. Colourful males are often found separately from these schools (Kuiter 2002).

Larvae collected in Palau had a larval duration mean of 72.4 days with a range of 53-90 (Victor 1986).

This species has been observed to be a group spawner (Nakazono 1979), at depths of 5-7 m, in channels or passages and around promontory or bommie areas of coral reefs (Collin 7 Bell 1991). School size was 2.8 individuals/school with average fish lengths of 8.57 cm. Density was .0029 individual/m2 and biomass .0269 g/m2 (Matoto et al. 1996).
Systems: Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is found in the ornamental marine fish export trade in the Philippines (Werner and Allen 2000), it is sold at US$ 4-8 depending on the size (Kung 2000 in Ryan and Clarke 2005).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats known for this species, although it is occasionally collected for the aquarium trade. This species may be subject to localized threats from habitat destruction in some parts of Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines (Burke et al. 2004, Hodgson 1999).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. However, its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range.

Citation: Cabanban, A. & Pollard, D. 2010. Thalassoma amblycephalum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 28 November 2014.
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