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Pteropus hypomelanus

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA CHIROPTERA PTEROPODIDAE

Scientific Name: Pteropus hypomelanus
Species Authority: Temminck, 1853
Common Name(s):
English Island Flying Fox, Variable Flying-fox, Small Flying-fox, Variable Flying Fox
Spanish Zorro Volador Pequeño
Synonym(s):
Pteropus annectens K. Andersen, 1908
Pteropus cagayanus Mearns, 1905
Pteropus canus K. Andersen, 1908
Pteropus condorensis Peters, 1869
Pteropus enganus Miller, 1906
Pteropus fretensis Kloss, 1916
Pteropus geminorum Miller, 1903
Pteropus lepidus Miller, 1900
Pteropus luteus K. Andersen, 1908
Pteropus macassaricus Heude, 1897
Pteropus maris Allen, 1936
Pteropus robinsoni K. Andersen, 1909
Pteropus satyrus K. Andersen, 1908
Pteropus simalurus Thomas, 1923
Pteropus tomesi Peters, 1869
Pteropus tricolor Gray, 1871
Pteropus vulcanius Thomas, 1915
Taxonomic Notes: This taxon belongs to the subniger species group. Earlier the taxon satyrus Andersen, 1908 was listed under Pteropus melanotus Blyth, 1863 (Corbet and Hill 1992; Koopman 1993). Jones and Kunz (2000) validated maris Allen, 1936 as its subspecies (Srinivasulu et al. in press). The Melanesian population of this species (subspecies P. h. luteus) is disjunct from populations in Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines (several subspecies).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Francis, C., Rosell-Ambal, G., Bonaccorso, F. & A., Heaney, L., Molur, S. & Srinivasulu, C.
Reviewer(s): Hutson, A.M., Racey, P.A. (Chiroptera Red List Authority) & Cox, N. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)
Justification:
Suffering from hunting pressure and habitat loss in the Philippines, where it may be Near Threatened. On a global scale, it is abundant, and should be considered Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is widespread, ranging from the Maldives and Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) in the west, to Melanesia in the east. In South Asia, this species is restricted to only four locations in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in India and Addu Atoll in Maldives (Molur et al. 2002). The species is found on many offshore islands and in coastal lowlands in the Southeast Asian region, including the Philippines and Indonesia (Sulawesi). In the Philippines it is found throughout the country with the possible except of the Palawan faunal region; records are from: Bohol, Cagayan Sulu, Camotes (Paguntulan pers. comm. 2006) Camiguin, Cebu (Paguntulan pers. comm. 2006) Cuyo, Dinagat, Guimaras, Leyte, Luzon (Camarines Sur, Ilocos Norte, and Nueva Ecija) Mactan, Marinduque, Maripipi, Masbat, Mindanao (Gunther 1897) Negros, Panay (including Boracay and Batbatan), Polillo, Romblon (Timm and Birney 1980), Samar, Siargao, Sibuyan, Siquijor (Heaney et al. 1998) Tablas (Paguntulan pers. comm. 2006). There are few records from mainland Papua New Guinea; the species is also found in the D'Entrecastreaux Archipelago of Papua New Guinea, on Manus in the Admiralty Islands. Records from New Britain and Tabar are questionable (probably P. admiraltatum). It is confirmed only from Mbanika and the Russel Islands in the Solomons. In South Asia, this species has been recorded from sea level to an elevation of 100 m asl. It has been recorded from sea level up to 900 m asl in the Philippines; it is primarily found in low elevation areas in Melanesia (under 500 m asl).
Countries:
Native:
India; Indonesia; Malaysia; Maldives; Myanmar; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Solomon Islands; Thailand; Viet Nam
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is common to abundant throughout its range, and can form colonies of up to 5,000 individuals. The abundance, population size and trends for this species are not known in South Asia (Molur et al. 2002).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: In South Asia, this species roosts in large colonies of several individuals and is found in forests, orchards, coconut palm groves (Molur et al. 2002). It feeds both on wild and cultivated fruits (Bates and Harrison 1997). In most parts of its range in the Philippines, this species roosts on small offshore islands and near coastlines, but forages on the mainland where it is common in agricultural areas and absent from primary forest (Heideman and Heaney 1992, Rickart et al. 1993, Utzurrum 1992). In Melanesia, it is generally an insular species found on small offshore islands. Animals may commute infrequently to larger islands for foraging. It is known to roost in trees, often in large groups at the coastline. It can be found foraging for food in both primary and secondary tropical forest habitats, rural gardens and plantations. The females give birth to a single young which take about one year to reach maturity (Flannery 1995; Bonaccorso 1998).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats to this species as a whole. In South Asia, this species is threatened by deforestation, generally resulting from logging operations and the conversion of land to agricultural and other uses. It is also threatened due to tourism related activities (Molur et al. 2002). The species is under heavy hunting pressure in the Philippines, although it may be able to withstand this, at least in the short term, as populations have remained stable. Animals are sold locally for 30-50 Philippine Pesos each Cariño pers. comm. 2006). In Melanesia, the species is locally vulnerable to hunting. Island populations of this species, especially on the coastal islands of northern New Guinea, are vulnerable to overexploitation by hunting for food (Bonaccorso 1998). Threats to this species are unknown in Indonesia.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This is accorded vermin classification under Schedule V of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act. This species has been recorded from Barren Island Wildlife Sanctuary, Andaman and Nicobar Island in India. Taxonomic studies, ecology, population monitoring and habitat management are recommended. Awareness needs to be created to mitigate threats to this species (Molur et al. 2002). This species is listed on Appendix II of CITES. This species apparently does well in captive-breeding programmes (Bonaccorso 1998).

Citation: Francis, C., Rosell-Ambal, G., Bonaccorso, F. & A., Heaney, L., Molur, S. & Srinivasulu, C. 2008. Pteropus hypomelanus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 22 September 2014.
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