Apogon maculatus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Apogonidae

Scientific Name: Apogon maculatus (Poey, 1860)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Spotted Cardinalfish, Flamefish
Spanish Cardenal, Cardenal manchado
Monoprion maculatus Poey, 1860

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2011-03-10
Assessor(s): Gilmore, G. & Fraser, T.
Reviewer(s): Cox, N.A. & Hines, A.
This species is widely distributed and fairly common where it occurs in shallow structured habitats. There are no known major threats, however, it is likely consumed by the invasive lionfish throughout its range and further investigation is needed on the possible impact. It is listed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is distributed in the western Atlantic from Cape Canaveral, Florida south along the U.S. coast, Bermuda, the Bahamas, throughout the Gulf of Mexico (except between the Texas/Mexico border and Tuxpan) and Caribbean Sea to Trinidad and Tobago (R. Robertson pers. comm. 2014). Its depth range is one to 128 m. Records north of Cape Canaveral (as far as Canada) are considered vagrants.
Countries occurrence:
Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Aruba; Bahamas; Barbados; Belize; Bermuda; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (Saba, Sint Eustatius); Cayman Islands; Colombia; Costa Rica; Cuba; Curaçao; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Haiti; Honduras; Jamaica; Martinique; Mexico; Montserrat; Nicaragua; Panama; Puerto Rico; Saint Barthélemy; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Martin (French part); Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Trinidad and Tobago; Turks and Caicos Islands; United States; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Atlantic – western central
Additional data:
Lower depth limit (metres):128
Upper depth limit (metres):1
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This is the most commonly encountered cardinalfish in shallow to intermediate depths throughout its range (Greenfield and Johnson 1990).
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This reef-associated species is commonly found in seagrass beds, tidepools and coral reefs high-energy reef crests (Greenfield and Johnson 1990, McEachran and Fechhelm 2005). A nocturnal species, it remains hidden in cracks and crevices during the day (Cervigón 1993). This species may reside in the rubble mounds made by the sand tilefish Malacanthus plumieri (Büttner 1996). It can be found at depths to 128 m and in shallow water less than 0.3 m (Greenfield and Johnson 1990). Distinct pairing occurs during courtship and spawning  which may occur throughout the year (Charney 1976). Males with eggs have been spotted in Bahamas in June and July (Smith 1997). It is a mouthbrooder (Thresher 1984). Maximum recorded size is 8.5 cm standard length (McEachran and Fechhelm 2005).

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is common in the aquarium trade and retails for low to moderate prices (Monteiro-Neto et al. 2003).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no known major threats. It has been recorded in the diet of the invasive lionfish in the Bahamas, Mexican Caribbean, and likely in the remainder of its range (Albins and Hixon 2008, Valdez-Moreno et al. 2012). It is easily targeted by the invasive lionfish given its small, shallow body and nocturnal, demersal habits (Green and Cote 2014). To date, at least 11 Apogonidae spp. have been documented in the diet. Due to the lionfish's ability to consume a variety of fishes smaller than 15 cm, both adults and juveniles of this species are likely consumed. In the Bahamas, a 65% decline in lionfish prey biomass over a period of two years was observed (species-specific data are not available at this time) (Green et al. 2012).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no species-specific conservation measures in place.

Citation: Gilmore, G. & Fraser, T. 2015. Apogon maculatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T185937A1791910. . Downloaded on 22 September 2018.
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