|Scientific Name:||Enneacanthus gloriosus|
|Species Authority:||(Holbrook, 1855)|
Bryttus gloriosus Holbrook, 1855
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Hammerson, G.A. & Ormes, M.|
This species is listed as Least Concern in view of the large extent of occurrence, large number of subpopulations, large population size, apparently stable trend, and lack of major threats.
|Range Description:||The native range includes coastal lowlands (Coastal Plain and lower and middle Piedmont) from extreme southern New York (lower Hudson River drainage) south to southern and extreme western Florida, lower Tombigbee River (Alabama), and Biloxi Bay system of Mississippi (Lee et al. 1980, Jenkins and Burkhead 1994, Ross 2001). Introduced and established in small parts of the Finger Lakes drainage in New York (Werner, Copeia 1972:878-879; Smith 1985) and in the lower Mississippi River basin in Mississippi (Ross 2001).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations) (e.g., see maps in Lee et al. 1980, Menhinick 1991, and Jenkins and Burkhead 1994).
Total adult population size is unknown but certainly exceeds 100,000. This fish is common to uncommon in different parts of its range (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994).
Extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, number of subpopulations, and population size probably are relatively stable or declining at a rate of less than 10% over 10 years or three generations.
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is common over sand or mud in pools and backwaters of heavily vegetated sluggish creeks and medium-sized rivers, and similar situations in ponds, lakes, and small impoundments (Lee et al. 1980, Jenkins and Burkhead 1994); in some areas it inhabits moderate-gradient headwaters with pools and runs and cover consisting of submerged plants or tree roots (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994). Habitat includes slightly brackish waters along the coast, but this fish is more numerous tidal and nontidal freshwater habitats. Eggs are laid on the bottom or among plants in a solitary nest made by the male in a small territory (Cooper 1983).|
|Use and Trade:||This species is not utilized.|
|Major Threat(s):||No major threats are known.|
|Conservation Actions:||Currently, this species is of relatively low conservation concern and does not require significant additional protection or major management, monitoring, or research action.|
|Citation:||NatureServe 2013. Enneacanthus gloriosus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 28 August 2015.|
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