|Scientific Name:||Morone americana|
|Species Authority:||(Gmelin, 1789)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||NatureServe (G. Hammerson)|
|Reviewer/s:||Lukey, J.R. (Freshwater Fish Red List Authority), Collen, B., Dewhurst, N. & Ram, M. (Sampled Red List Index Coordinating Team)|
Morone americana has been assessed as Least Concern. This is an invasive species which has expanded its distribution range in recent year through introductions and stockings as a gamefish. This species can inhabit a range of habitat types and is increasingly common throughout its range. There are no known major threats for this species at the present time.
|Range Description:||The range of Morone americana encompasses the Atlantic slope drainages from the Lake Ontarion-St Lawrence drainage basins in Quebec, south to Peedee River in South Carolina. The Lake Ontario populations may have colonised through the Erie Canal, however there are few records of this species from the Lake Erie drainage basin. The highest abundance of this species is found in the Hudson River and Chesapeake Bay (Lee et al. 1980). Inland populations of this species are more common in northern areas. This species has undergone an increase in distribution through introductions and stockings as a game fish|
Native:Canada; United States
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations) (e.g. see map in Lee et al. 1980): Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 100,000.
Warren et al. (2000) categorised the population trend for Morone americana as "currently stable" in the southeastern United States.
This species has now become very common in shallow portions of inland lakes and rivers (Minnesota Sea Grant 2001; Wisconsin Sea Grant 2002).
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This species occurs predominately in brackish water and generally close to shore in saltwater. This species is common in quiet water, usually over mud, far upstream in medium to large rivers, and in lakes and ponds with no sea connection. This species has been observed to move offshore during day, and inshore at night. Spawning occurs in this spring months in shallow, fresh or slightly brackish water, over a sandy substrate. Eggs sink to the bottom substrate where they stick (Thomson et al. 1978).
This species has now been listed as an invasive species and poses a threat to other native species. They out-compete native species for food and feed on the eggs of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) and white bass (Morone chrysops). Their feeding on the eggs of S. vitreum has been attributed to observed declines in the species (Fuller et al. 2006). This species has hybridised with native Morone chrysops in Lake Erie. Hybrids are believed to potentially dilute the gene pool (Fuller et al. 2006).
|Major Threat(s):||It is unlikely that any major threat is impacting this species.|
|Conservation Actions:||There are no species-specific conservation measures in place, or needed, for this species. This species is listed as an invasive species by the Invasive Species Specialist Group.|
|Citation:||NatureServe (G. Hammerson) 2010. Morone americana. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 May 2013.|
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