|Scientific Name:||Morone americana|
|Species Authority:||(Gmelin, 1789)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.|
|Facilitator/s:||Hammerson, G.A. & Ormes, M.|
Listed as Least Concern in view of the large extent of occurrence, large number of subpopulations, large population size, and lack of major threats. Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable, or the species may be declining but not fast enough to qualify for any of the threatened categories under Criterion A (reduction in population size).
|Range Description:||Range encompasses Atlantic Slope drainages from St. Lawrence-Lake Ontario drainage, Quebec, south to Peedee River, South Carolina; Lake Ontario populations may have colonized through the Erie Canal; few records from the Lake Erie drainage. Peak abundance of this species is in the Hudson River and Chesapeake Bay (Lee et al. 1980). Inland populations are more common in northern areas.|
Native:Canada; United States
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations) (e.g., see map in Lee et al. 1980).
Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 100,000.
Warren et al. (2000) categorized the trend as "currently stable" in the southeastern United States.
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species occurs predominately in brackish water and generally close to shore in saltwater. It is common in quiet water, usually over mud, far up medium to large rivers in fresh water and in lakes and ponds having no sea connection. It has been observed to move offshore during day, onshore at night. Spawning occurs in shallow water, fresh or slightly brackish. Eggs sink to bottom and stick (Thomson et al. 1978).|
|Major Threat(s):||No major threats are known.|
|Conservation Actions:||Currently, this species is of relatively low conservation concern and does not require significant additional protection or major management, monitoring, or research action.|
|Citation:||NatureServe 2013. Morone americana. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 11 March 2014.|
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