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Halichoeres adustus

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA ACTINOPTERYGII PERCIFORMES LABRIDAE

Scientific Name: Halichoeres adustus
Species Authority: (Gilbert, 1890)
Common Name(s):
English Black wrasse
Spanish Señorita negra
Synonym(s):
Pseudojulis adustus Gilbert, 1890

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable D2 ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2007-05-23
Assessor(s): Allen, G. & Edgar, G.
Reviewer(s): Robertson, R. & Carpenter, K.
Justification:
The majority of this species breeding population is only known from one location (Cocos Island), where it is common. This species is considered rare (three locations), or a vagrant in the the remainder of its restricted range. Regional experts support the plausible threat of the increased duration and frequency of ENSO events that can cause severe and rapid declines for restricted-range, shallow-water species. Although the species occurs within a Marine Protected Area, the protection does not extend to the threatening environmental changes the ENSO event creates. This species qualifies for Vulnerable under Criterion D2. However, more research is needed on this phenomenon, and this species should be reassessed when new information is available.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is found only in the Revillagigedo, Cocos, Galápagos and the Tres Marias Islands.This species was recorded as a vagrant at Cabo San Lucas (Baja California), in Nicoya (Costa Rica), and in Ensenada de Utria (Colombia). Depth information is from the original description.
Countries:
Native:
Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; Mexico
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – southeast
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: There is no population information available for this species. This species is considered rare in many parts of its range including the Galápagos archipelago. It is considered common in Cocos Island, where is the majority of the breeding population is present.
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This reef-associated species is generally encountered around islands, over shallow rocky substrate to depths of five m. Very little is known on this species biology.
Systems: Marine

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The majority of this species range is largely confined to Cocos Island, where El Nino is regarded as severe threat. In the Eastern Tropical Pacific, severe localized fish species declines have occurred after strong ENSO events (Grove 1985, Edgar et al. 2009). The frequency and duration of ENSO events in this region of the Eastern Tropical Pacific appears to be increasing (Glynn and Ault 2000, Soto 2001, Chen et al. 2004). Given this species' restricted distribution and shallow water habitat, oceanographic environmental changes, such as those associated with future ENSO events, may have detrimental effects on the survival of this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no known conservation measures for this species. However, this species is present in Marine Protected Areas in the Cocos, Galápagos, and Revillagigedos Islands (WDPA 2006).

Citation: Allen, G. & Edgar, G. 2010. Halichoeres adustus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 August 2014.
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