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Xenocys jessiae

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA ACTINOPTERYGII PERCIFORMES HAEMULIDAE

Scientific Name: Xenocys jessiae
Species Authority: Jordan & Bollman, 1890
Common Name(s):
English Black-striped salema
Spanish Ojón

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable D2 ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2007-05-25
Assessor(s): Allen, G., Robertson, R., Rivera, F., Edgar, G. & Merlen, G.
Reviewer(s): Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)
Justification:
This species is only known from one location (Galápagos Islands). Regional experts support the plausible threat of the increased duration and frequency of ENSO events that can cause severe and rapid declines for restricted-range, shallow-water species in this region of the Eastern Tropical Pacific. This species is listed as Vulnerable under Criterion D2.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is found only in the Galápagos Islands.
Countries:
Native:
Ecuador
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Pacific – southeast
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is locally abundant. However, fish monitoring studies indicated that this species disappeared from all sites studied for the two years following 1987/88 El Niño, but populations are thought to have somewhat recovered. This species was studied in different sites at Galápagos archipelago, with an overall mean abundance of 12.1 individuals per 500 m² (Edgar et al. 2004).
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This reef-associated species forms large daytime aggregations along walls and over rocky slopes, often in somewhat protected areas (Humann and Deloach 1993), to depths of 20 m. It is most commonly encountered in rocky areas with steep bottom profile.
Systems: Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Although not currently targeted by fishers, this species represents a potentially important bait fish resource.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species has been observed to be greatly affected by severe El Niño events. In the Eastern Tropical Pacific, severe localized fish species declines have occurred after strong ENSO events that result in shallow waters that are too warm and nutrient poor for extended periods of time (Grove 1985, Edgar et al. 2009). The frequency and duration of ENSO events in this region of the Eastern Tropical Pacific (e.g. the up-welling zone off the coast of Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Panama and the offshore islands) appears to be increasing (Glynn and Ault 2000, Soto 2001, Chen et al. 2004). Given this species’ restricted distribution and shallow water habitat, oceanographic environmental changes, such as those associated with future ENSO events, may have detrimental effects on the survival of this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no specific conservation measures known for this species. While present in the Galápagos Marine Protected Area (Roca et al. 2003), better enforcement of zone regulations is required to adequately safeguard Galápagos endemic species.

Citation: Allen, G., Robertson, R., Rivera, F., Edgar, G. & Merlen, G. 2010. Xenocys jessiae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 02 September 2014.
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