|Scientific Name:||Lile stolifera|
|Species Authority:||(Jordan & Gilbert, 1882)|
Clupea stolifera Jordan & Gilbert, 1882
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Iwamoto, T. & Eschmeyer, W.|
|Reviewer(s):||Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)|
This species has a wide distribution, has no major threats, and occurs in several Marine Protected Areas. Therefore, it is listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||The distribution of this species in the eastern Pacific is in Mexico (Baja California and southern Gulf of California) and from Costa Rica to northern Peru, including the Galapagos islands.|
Native:Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; Mexico; Panama; Peru
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – southeast
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Abundance and biomass in mangrove swamps in Baja California, Mexico showed marked seasonal variation of organism/ha (grams/ha); autumm: 0.09 (0.12), winter: 0.36 (1.57), spring: 11.4 (79.0), summer: 12.36 (85.7) (Gonzalez-Acosta et al. 2005).|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This is a coastal-pelagic species that forms dense schools alongshore, lagoons, and estuaries. It tolerates brackish and fresh water. It is found down to 10m. This species feeds on plankton, especially on small crustaceans and fish larvae (Whitehead and Rodríguez-Sánchez 1995). It may be found in streams, estuaries, and sandy and muddy shores.|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
This species has no major threats.
There are no targeted fisheries for this species: it is often caught by cast net (FAO 1995). This species is important as a minor commercial fishery resource (Gonzalez-Acosta et al. 2005).
|Conservation Actions:||There are no known conservation measures for this species. This species' distribution includes a number of Marine Protected Areas in the central tropical eastern Pacific region. However, not all of the Marine Protected Areas have been considered to take action against major threats on the ecosystems. Many tropical eastern Pacific endemics are found in habitats that are not currently protected within Marine Protected Areas such as areas with soft substrata.|
|Citation:||Iwamoto, T. & Eschmeyer, W. 2010. Lile stolifera. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T183336A8095864.Downloaded on 01 March 2017.|
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