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Semicossyphus darwini

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA ACTINOPTERYGII PERCIFORMES LABRIDAE

Scientific Name: Semicossyphus darwini
Species Authority: (Jenyns, 1842)
Common Name(s):
English Galápagos sheephead wrasse, Goldspot sheepshead
Spanish Camote, Pejeperro, Vieja mancha dorada
Synonym(s):
Cossyphus darwini Jenyns, 1842
Dentex maculatus Perez Canto, 1886
Labrus aper Valenciennes, 1846
Pimelometopon darwini Jenyns, 1842
Semicossyphus maculatus Perez Canto, 1886

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Data Deficient ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2007-05-23
Assessor(s): Allen, G., Rivera, F., Edgar, G., Merlen, G. & Choat, J.H.
Reviewer(s): Sadovy, Y., Craig, M. & Roberston, R.
Justification:
This species is widespread and common in at least the southern portion of its range. It is a large and probably slow growing wrasse making it vulnerable to overfishing. There is special concern for the Galápagos population, which is heavily exploited. However, there is no information on the life history or the impact of the fishing pressure on this species. This species is listed as Data Deficient. It is recommended that more research be done on the impacts of the fishing and the biology of this species.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is found from Ecuador to northern Chile, including the Galápagos Islands.
Countries:
Native:
Chile; Ecuador; Peru
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Pacific – southeast
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is more common in the southern portion of its range. It was studied in different sites at Galápagos archipelago, with an overall mean abundance of 0.49 individuals per 500 m2 (Edgar et al. 2004),where it primarily occurs in the west and south of the islands below the thermocline. In Peru, this species occurs rarely north of Lima, but is common south and in northern Chile.
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This is a large, and likely slow-growing species, whose biology and ecology is not well-known. It is most often found below 15 m depth, but with occasional individuals in shallow water. It is associated with deeper algal turf habitats (Pérez-Matus 2007). It is associated with deep water kelp forests in the Galápagos (Graham et al. 2007). Its strong dentition makes it an opportunistic predator, even of hard-shelled benthos as shown by its stomach contents of coarse calcareous remains and detritus (Reck 1983).
Systems: Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is fished throughout its range, and is commercially exploited in the Galápagos, and possibly elsewhere. Fishing efforts for this species have increased in recent years.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is a large and probably slow growing wrasse making it vulnerable to overfishing. There is special concern for the Galápagos population, which is heavily exploited.

Given its deep-water habitat and southerly distribution, ENSO is unlikely to greatly affect the population. Population numbers declined more than 80% at sites studied in Galápagos during 1997/98 El Niño, with recovery one year later in 1999. This species presumably migrated to deep water during the El Niño event.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no known conservation measures for this species. However, its distribution falls partially into a number of Marine Protected Areas in the Eastern Pacific region (WDPA 2006). More research is needed to determine the impact of commercial fishing on this species throughout its range.

Citation: Allen, G., Rivera, F., Edgar, G., Merlen, G. & Choat, J.H. 2010. Semicossyphus darwini. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 28 July 2014.
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