|Scientific Name:||Proechimys semispinosus|
|Species Authority:||Tomes, 1860|
Proechimys gorgonae Bangs, 1905
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Fabre, P.H. 2016. Family Echimyidae. In: Wilson, D.E., Lacher, T.E., Jr and Mittermeier, R.A. (eds), Handbook of Mammals of the World. Vol. 6. Lagomorphs and Rodents: Part 1., Lynx Editions, Barcelona.|
This species has several subspecies:
P. s. burrus Bangs, 1901 – Isla San Miguel, Gulfo de Panama, Panama.
P. s. centralis Thomas, 1896 – S Nicaragua, NW Costa Rica (includes semispinosus True, 1889, a homonym of semispinosus Tomes).
P. s. colombianus Thomas, 1914 – Chocó, Pacific coast of Colombia.
P. s. goldmani Bole, 1937 – Azuero Peninsula, Pamama.
P. s. gorgonae Bangs, 1905 – Isla Gorgona, Colombia.
P. s. ignotus Kellogg, 1946 – Isla San José, Golfo de Panama, Panama.
P. s. panamensis Thomas, 1900 – W Costa Rica through most of Panama and possibly extending into NW Colombia (includes chiriquinus Thomas, 1900).
P. s. rosa Thomas, 1900 – El Oro province, SW Ecuador.
P. s. rubellus Hollister, 1914 – Angustura Valley, Cartago province, Costa Rica.
P. s. semispinosus Tomes, 1860 – Esmeraldas province, NW Ecuador (includes calidior Thomas, 1911).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Roach, N. & Naylor, L.|
|Contributor(s):||Gómez-Laverde, M., Aguilera, M., Boada, C. & Timm, R.|
This species is listed as Least Concern because of its wide distribution, presumed large population, occurrence in a number of protected areas, tolerance to some degree of habitat modification, and because it does not appear to be under threat and it is unlikely to be declining anywhere near the rate required to qualify for listing in a threatened category (Reid 2009, M. Gómez-Laverde pers. comm.).
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species occurs from eastern Honduras to southwestern Ecuador (Fabre 2016). It favours lowlands but can be found up to 800 m (Reid 2009).|
Native:Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; Honduras; Nicaragua; Panama
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is common and abundant throughout its geographic range (Oaks et al. 2008). There have been extensive studies on Panama populations, but very little of those in South American (Patton and Leite 2015).|
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This large rat is found in lowland evergreen forest primary and second growth. Also occurs in deciduous forest, where it favours riparian corridors and low-lying areas. Nocturnal, mainly terrestrial and solitary. It travels along fallen logs or old walls but does not climb trees. At night it is often seen sitting quietly near buttress roots or logs. It walks slowly and sometimes freezes in a spotlight. This rat may use burrows during the day but often occupies shallow depressions under roosts and hollow logs, or in dense vegetation. The diet consists mainly of fruit and seeds, with lesser amounts of plant material, insects, and fungi. Palm nuts and other large seeds are carried to a sheltered spot to be eaten. They play significant roles in seed dispersal (Carvajal and Adler 2008) This species is used widely as a food source, and has the potential to be a significant protein source (Asprilla-Perea et al. 2012). Females give birth to one to five precocious young and may breed four times a year (Reid 2009). Maximum life spans are at least three years for both male and female (Oaks et al. 2008). In central Panama males have larger home ranges than females, but mating systems and territoriality probably depend on population density (Alder 2011).|
|Generation Length (years):||3|
|Major Threat(s):||Deforestation is a threat in some parts of its range, although this species is thought to be tolerant to a degree of habitat destruction or alteration (M. Gómez-Laverde pers. comm.).|
|Conservation Actions:||This species occurs in several protected areas. No conservation measures are needed for this species.|
|Citation:||Roach, N. & Naylor, L. 2016. Proechimys semispinosus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T18297A22208264.Downloaded on 23 February 2017.|
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