|Scientific Name:||Sonneratia lanceolata Blume|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Kathiresan, K., Salmo III, S.G., Fernando, E.S., Peras, J.R., Sukardjo, S., Miyagi, T., Ellison, J., Koedam, N.E., Wang, Y., Primavera, J., O. Jin Eong, Wan-Hong Yong, J. & Ngoc Nam, V.|
|Reviewer(s):||Polidoro, B.A., Livingstone, S.R. & Carpenter, K.E. (Global Marine Species Assessment Coordinating Team)|
This species is common in the center of its range, but is relatively rare at the extremeties of its range. It is threatened by the loss of mangrove habitat throughout its range, primarily due to extraction and coastal development, and there has been an estimated 24% decline in mangrove area within this species range since 1980. Mangrove species are more at risk from coastal development and extraction at the extremes of their distribution, and are likely to be contracting in these areas more than in other areas. It is also likely that changes in climate due to global warming will further affect these parts of the range. Although there are overall range declines in many areas, they are not enough to reach any of the threatened category thresholds. This species is listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||This species is found in Indonesia (Bali, Lesser Sunda Islands, Sulawesi, Halmahira, Irian Jaya, Tanimbar Aru, Molluccas) and in northwest Australia, northeast Australia, and Papua New Guinea.|
Native:Australia; Indonesia; Papua New Guinea
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is common in the center of its range (Molluccas, Halmahira, and Irian Jaya - which is thought to be the center of the population), and rare on the extremeties such as in Bali. It is also rare in North Queensland where it is only known from two locations, but is more common in northwestern Australia.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is found in the upstream estuarine zone in the lower intertidal region (Robertson and Alongi 1992). It is a fast-growing and pioneering species (Terrados et al. 1997). This species can grow up to 30 m in the center of its range. On the extremities of its range, it grows only to less than 10 m.|
|Systems:||Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine|
|Use and Trade:||This species is used for woodcarving, especially in Bali where it is considered rare and is a commercial wood for artesanal products. This species is also made into a beverage in Indonesia.|
This is threatened by coastal development throughout its range. In Austrailia, this species is especially threatened by urban development around Cairns and Darwin, as it is located on the landward margin of mangrove habitat. Although local estimates are uncertain due to differing legislative definitions of what is a 'mangrove' and to the imprecision in determining mangrove area, current consensus estimates of mangrove loss in the last quarter-century report an approximately 24% decline in mangrove areas in countries within this species range since 1980 (FAO 2007).
Sea level rise is a major threat, especially to back mangroves that have no area in which to expand. Mangrove species with a habitat on the landward margin may be particularly vulnerable to sea-level rise if owing to coastal development their movement inland is blocked.
All mangrove ecosystems occur within mean sea level and high tidal elevations, and have distinct species zonations that are controlled by the elevation of the substrate relative to mean sea level. This is because of associated variation in frequency of elevation, salinity and wave action (Duke et al. 1998). With rise in sea-level, the habitat requirements of each species will be disrupted, and species zones will suffer mortality at their present locations and re-establish at higher elevations in areas that were previously landward zones (Ellison 2005). If sea-level rise is a continued trend over this century, then there will be continued mortality and re-establishment of species zones. However, species that are easily dispersed and fast growing/fast producing will cope better than those which are slower growing and slower to reproduce.
In addition, mangrove area is declining globally due to a number of localized threats. The main threat is habitat destruction and removal of mangrove areas. Reasons for removal include cleared for shrimp farms, agriculture, fish ponds, rice production and salt pans, and for the development of urban and industrial areas, road construction, coconut plantations, ports, airports, and tourist resorts. Other threats include pollution from sewage effluents, solid wastes, siltation, oil, and agricultural and urban runoff. Climate change is also thought to be a threat, particularly at the edges of a species range. Natural threats include cyclones, hurricane and tsunamis.
|Conservation Actions:||There are no conservation measures specific to this species, but its range may include some marine and coastal protected areas. Continued monitoring and research is recommended, as well as the inclusion of mangrove areas in marine and coastal protected areas.|
|Citation:||Kathiresan, K., Salmo III, S.G., Fernando, E.S., Peras, J.R., Sukardjo, S., Miyagi, T., Ellison, J., Koedam, N.E., Wang, Y., Primavera, J., O. Jin Eong, Wan-Hong Yong, J. & Ngoc Nam, V. 2010. Sonneratia lanceolata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T178827A7619241.Downloaded on 23 July 2018.|
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