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Tremoctopus violaceus 

Scope: Global
Language: English
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_onStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Mollusca Cephalopoda Octopoda Tremoctopodidae

Scientific Name: Tremoctopus violaceus Delle Chiaje, 1830
Common Name(s):
English Common Blanket Octopus, Violet Blanket Octopus
Taxonomic Notes: The systematics of Tremoctopodidae was reviewed by Thomas (1977). He concluded that two species existed, T. violaceus, comprising the subspecies T. v. violaceus in the Atlantic Ocean and T. v. gracilis in the Pacific Ocean, and a new deep-water species T. gelatus Thomas, 1977.  O'Shea (1999) resurrected the New Zealand species, T. robsoni. Given that T. v. violaceus was no more different from T. robsoni than it was from T. v. gracilis, Mangold et al. (2008) elevated the two subspecies of T. violaceus to specific level.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2014-08-20
Assessor(s): Allcock, L.
Reviewer(s): Vecchione, M., Young, R. & Böhm, M.
Justification:
We consider this species to be of Least Concern because although little is known about this species, it has a wide distribution in the open ocean and the fact that it is not targeted by trade suggests that this species is unlikely to be under threat.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is found in epipelagic waters between 40oN and 35oS in the Atlantic Ocean, including in the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean and Mediterranean Seas (Thomas 1977).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Albania; Algeria; Angola; Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Aruba; Bahamas; Barbados; Belize; Benin; Bermuda; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Brazil; Cameroon; Cape Verde; Cayman Islands; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Curaçao; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Egypt; Equatorial Guinea; France; French Guiana; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Gibraltar; Greece; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Israel; Italy; Jamaica; Lebanon; Liberia; Libya; Malta; Martinique; Mauritania; Mexico; Monaco; Montenegro; Montserrat; Morocco; Namibia; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Panama; Portugal; Puerto Rico; Saint Barthélemy; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Martin (French part); Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; San Marino; Sao Tomé and Principe; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Slovenia; South Africa; Spain; Suriname; Syrian Arab Republic; Togo; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Turkey; Turks and Caicos Islands; United States; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.; Western Sahara
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Atlantic – northwest; Atlantic – western central; Atlantic – northeast; Atlantic – eastern central; Atlantic – southeast; Atlantic – southwest; Mediterranean and Black Sea
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population size is unknown.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Males of Tremoctopus are dwarf (with a mantle length of about 20 mm: approximately 5% of female mantle length) and, like other argonautoid species, detach their hectocotylus during mating. They are also able to autotomise other arm tips, presumably as a defensive strategy. Individuals of Tremoctopus are often found associated with Physalia, carrying broken tentacles, presumably as a defence (Mangold et al. 2008). They lay numerous (>100,000) small eggs which are attached to a tough rod secreted and held by the female until hatching (Naef 1921-23).
Systems:Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is not utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The threats to this species are unknown.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no species-specific conservation actions in place for this species.

Citation: Allcock, L. 2014. Tremoctopus violaceus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T174487A1415800. . Downloaded on 12 December 2017.
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