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Hypselobarbus curmuca 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae

Scientific Name: Hypselobarbus curmuca (Hamilton, 1807)
Synonym(s):
Barbus guentheri Day, 1869
Cyprinus curmuca Hamilton, 1807
Gobio canarensis Jerdon, 1849
Gonoproktopterus curmuca (Hamilton, 1807)
Taxonomic Notes: Hamilton (1822) described this species as Cyprinus curmuca from Vedavathi River in the Tungabhadra drainage. Barbus kolus Sykes, 1841 was synonymised with C. curmuca by Menon (1992).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2acd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2010-06-24
Assessor(s): Abraham, R.
Reviewer(s): Rema Devi, K.R., Gopalakrishnan, A., Arunachalam, M., Shrikant, J., Johnson, J.A., Rahul, K. & Molur, S.
Contributor(s): Molur, S.
Justification:
Owing to the fact that Hypselobarbus curmuca is threatened throughout its range by habitat destruction and targeted fishing, and since there is an indication that its numbers are coming down, a decline of more than 50% in the last 10 years due to overexploitation, it is assessed as Endangered.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Hypselobarbus curmuca is distributed in east flowing Tungabhadra, Cauvery and Vedavathi and west flowing Netravathi and Kuamaradhara in Karnataka, Tambaraparani in Tamil Nadu, and all the west flowing systems Pamba, Achenkovil, Manimala, Periyar, Chalakkudy, Bharathapuzha and Chaliyar in Kerala (Arunachalam 2004, Shaji and Easa 2003, Jayaram 2010, R. Abraham pers. obs. December 2010; C.P. Shaji and R. Kumar pers. comm. 2010).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
India (Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:8500Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:410365
Number of Locations:20-30
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:There is no published literature documenting the population of the species. In reservoirs, especially Malampuzha, the species is very abundant (R. Raghavan pers. comm. 2010). The population all through the range has declined as observed in fishermen catches and market surveys. The population decline is estimated to be more than 50% due to overexploitation and destructive fishing in some parts of its range (M. Arunachalam pers. comm. 2010).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Hypselobarbus curmuca is an omnivorous, gregarious species, that normally occupy deep waters in the rivers of the plains or in deep and cool pools in hilly regions (Chhapgar and Manakadan 2000) and as adults migrate to smaller tributaries and streams for spawning. The species is seen mostly along the banks of rivers (Biju 2005). It attains a maximum length of 30 cm; is a bottom feeders, sand sifters and hence have a suitable downward facing mouth. Adult males develop tubercles on the snout. It is known to breed after the south-west monsoon months, from June to August (Daniels 2002).
Systems:Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Movement patterns:Full Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The species is a preferred food fish and is consumed in most parts of it's range. Juveniles are collected for aquarium trade.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Destructive exploitation of the species by dynamite fishing and poisoning, habitat destruction and fragmentation due to sand-mining and dams, and overall stream degradation due to pollution have greatly reduced the range and abundance of this fish species. Exotic, introduced species like Cyprinus carpio, Labeo mrigala, Catla catla and Oreochromis mossambica too, have contributed to the decline of the species in Periyar (R. Abraham pers. obs. November 2010). Overfishing is a primary threat to the species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are populations of the species inside protected areas, but these are transient, since they are potamodromous and need to go outside from within protected areas, once they mature into adults. Once outside they are subject to the threats elaborated. Hence, there is need for establishing riverine protected area networks throughout the river from source to the sea mouth, that serve as buffer areas for the survival of the species. According to the records from literature, there seems to be two broad populations of the species; a north peninsula population in the Krishna-Godavari systems and a South-western population. But, it may also be a case of poor sampling in the intermediate areas, that the species seems absent from there. Hence, more rigorous surveys are also a preliminary requirement.

Citation: Abraham, R. 2011. Hypselobarbus curmuca. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T172475A6899671. . Downloaded on 24 September 2017.
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