|Scientific Name:||Malus sylvestris|
|Species Authority:||(L.) Mill.|
Malus communis subsp. sylvestris (L.) Dippel
Malus praecox (Pall.) Borkh.
Malus sylvestris subsp. praecox (Pall.) Soó
Pyrus malus subsp. sylvestris (L.) Ehrh.
Pyrus sylvestris (L.) Focke
|Taxonomic Notes:||Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. is a primary wild relative of apple, M. domestica Borkh. (USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program 2010). Three subspecies are native to Europe: M. sylvestris ssp. orientalis (Uglitzk.) Browicz, M. sylvestris ssp. praecox (Pall.) Soó and M. sylvestris (L.) Mill. ssp. sylvestris (Kurtto 2009).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Data Deficient ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Kik, C., Korpelainen, H., Vögel, R., Asdal, Å., Eliáš, P., Draper, D. & Magos Brehm, J.|
|Reviewer(s):||Collett, L. & Nieto, A.|
Global and European regional assessment: Data Deficient (DD)
EU 27 regional assessment: Data Deficient (DD)
Although Malus sylvestris is relatively widely distributed in Europe, hybridization with cultivated M. domestica is thought to be having a significant impact on the population. It is not known to what extent the genetic diversity of the species has been affected; therefore, it is regionally assessed as Data Deficient.
|Range Description:||M. sylvestris is native to many parts of northern, middle, east, southeastern and southwestern Europe (GRIN 2010).|
Knowledge of its national distribution in Europe is as follows:
Native:Albania; Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France (Corsica, France (mainland)); Germany; Greece (Greece (mainland)); Hungary; Ireland; Italy (Italy (mainland), Sardegna, Sicilia); Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malta; Moldova; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal (Portugal (mainland)); Romania; Russian Federation (Central European Russia, East European Russia, Kaliningrad, North European Russia, Northwest European Russia, South European Russia); Serbia (Kosovo, Serbia, Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain (Spain (mainland)); Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey (Turkey-in-Europe); Ukraine (Ukraine (main part)); United Kingdom (Great Britain, Northern Ireland)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Knowledge of the European subpopulation is available for the following countries:|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:|
In Finland, this species grows in rocky, herb-rich forests, waterfront thickets and forests and rich meadows—it favours limy soil (H. Korpelainen pers. comm. 2010). In the United Kingdom and Ireland it grows in hedgerows, scrub, copses, roadsides and also on rough ground (Preston et al. 2002), while in the Netherlands, it grows in forests and shrubwoods on humid and moderately fertile soils (Tamis et al. 2003). Where the species grows in forest margins, it has to compete with taller forest species. In Iberia, it grows from sea level to 1,800 m, in Germany the maximum altitude is 1,000 m, while in Norway it is 550 m.
|Use and Trade:||M. sylvestris is a primary wild relative of and potential gene donor to apple, M. domestica and is also a widely cultivated ornamental tree. It is sometimes collected from the wild for food (for humans and farmed animals) and for medicinal purposes.|
|Major Threat(s):||The main threats are hybridization with M. domestica and forest management, particularly as the species tends to grow in forest margins. As the plants mainly occur as isolated individuals, rather than as viable populations, they are susceptible to events.|
Knowledge of the national threat/conservation status of M. sylvestris is available for the following European countries:
It is recommended that the monitoring and management of this species is incorporated into the existing management plans of the protected areas in which it occurs.EURISCO reports 52 germplasm accessions of M. sylvestris held in European genebanks, only one of which is reported to be of wild or weedy origin and does not originate from within Europe (EURISCO Catalogue 2010). Germplasm collection and duplicated ex situ storage is a priority for this species.
Research is needed to determine the effect of hybridization with M. domestica on the genetic diversity of M. sylvestris.
|Citation:||Kik, C., Korpelainen, H., Vögel, R., Asdal, Å., Eliáš, P., Draper, D. & Magos Brehm, J. 2011. Malus sylvestris. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T172170A6841688.Downloaded on 29 May 2017.|
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