|Scope: Global & Europe|
|Scientific Name:||Zospeum exiguum Kuščer, 1932|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Bank, R.A. 2017. Fauna Europeae Project: Checklist of the land and freshwater Gastropoda of Europe. Last update: July 16th., 2017. Fauna Europea Project: http://www.nmbe.ch/sites/default/files/uploads/PDF_Upload/fauna_europaea_2017_03_16.pdf. Hoogezand.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable D2 ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Slapnik, R., Seddon, M.B. & Štamol, V.|
|Reviewer(s):||Neubert, E. & Allen, D.J.|
This species is endemic to Slovenia and Croatia. In Croatia, it is known from only two localities in the source region of the Kupa River, while in Slovenia it is restricted to the Kupa River and the upper part of the Ljubljanica River. The species and its habitat are threatened by pollution and changing water levels inside the caves caused by hydroelectric usage of rivers. Conservation actions required include ensuring that river flow levels do not decline and hence do not impact the water levels in the caves and reduction of agricultural pollution of waters and pollution from domestic sources which can endanger these habitats. The species is found in five locations, and with declining quality of habitat, meets the assessment as Vulnerable (VU D2).
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species is known from five caves in Slovenia and northwestern Croatia in the region of the Ljubljanica and Kolpa (Kupa) rivers (Bole 1974, Slapnik and Ozimec 2004, V. Stamol pers. comm. 2010).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
There are no data available on the population size and trend.
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species lives in caves, but unlike other Zospeum species, which are strictly terrestrial snails, this species has been found in flowing water. However it remains to be confirmed whether the species is fully aquatic, or amphibious, adapted to frequently inundated cave habitats.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Use and Trade:||
The species is not utilized.
This species is usually associated with moist habitats within the cave, rather than water sources. The major potential threats to this species are declining levels of water due to changing river flows with offtake and storage of water for hydroelectric schemes, and water pollution; the water quality at the type locality (Križna jama, Lož, Slovenija) is especially poor (R. Slapnik pers. comm. 2017). Conservation actions required include ensuring that river flow levels do not decline and hence do not impact the water levels in the caves, and reduction of agricultural pollution of waters and pollution from domestic sources which can endanger these habitats.
|Conservation Actions:||The species has been assessed as Endangered (E) in Slovenia and as Vulnerable (VU D2) in Croatia. Conservation actions required include ensuring that river flow levels do not decline and hence do not impact the water levels in the caves, along with reduction of agricultural pollution of waters and pollution from domestic sources which can endanger these habitats.|
|Citation:||Slapnik, R., Seddon, M.B. & Štamol, V. 2017. Zospeum exiguum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T170623A86024425.Downloaded on 23 September 2018.|
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