|Scientific Name:||Mauremys reevesii (Gray, 1831)|
Chinemys megalocephala Fang, 1934
Chinemys reevesii (Gray, 1831)
Damonia unicolor Gray, 1873
Emys japonica Duméril & Bibron, in Duméril & Duméril, 1851
Emys reevesii Gray, 1831
Emys vulgaris ssp. picta Schlegel, 1844
Geoclemys grangeri Schmidt, 1925
Geoclemys paracaretta Chang, 1929
Mauremys pritchardi McCord, 1997 [partim, hybrid]
|Taxonomic Notes:||Traditionally placed in Chinemys, reevesii has in recent years been widely accepted as a species of Mauremys (Fritz and Havas 2007, TTWG 2010). The species includes the forms Chinemys megalocephala Fang, 1934, Geoclemys grangeri Schmidt, 1925, and Damonia unicolor Gray, 1873, which have on occasion been considered as valid species or subspecies, but have in recent years been treated consistently as synonyms of reevesii (Guo et al. 1997; Fritz and Havas 2007, TTWG 2010).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered A2bcd+4bcd ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||van Dijk, P.P.|
|Reviewer(s):||Horne, B.D., Lau, M.W.N., Mittermeier, R.A., Philippen, H.-D., Quinn, H.R. & Rhodin, A.G.J.|
Mauremys reevesii has become subject to intensive exploitation for food and medicine and to supply the aquaculture industry with breeding animals, as well as being extensively impact by habitat degradation and loss; it has declined to extinction across most of its range in P.R. China, with only outlying (and possibly historically introduced) populations in Taiwan (offshore islands only) and Japan remaining at reasonably original densities. Generation time is estimated at a minimum of 10 years. Over the past 30 years the species has disappeared from at least half its original area of occurrence as a result of targeted collection, and collection pressures continue, qualifying the species for EN A2bcd+A4bcd.
|Range Description:||Mauremys reevesii is native to most of temperate and subtropical China, North Korea and South Korea; populations also occur in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Japan, though these may be historic introductions by humans (Fong and Chen 2010). Populations recorded from Timor (Indonesia), Timor Leste and Palau certainly originated from human introductions.|
Native:China; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of
Introduced:Hong Kong; Indonesia (Lesser Sunda Is.); Japan; Palau; Taiwan, Province of China; Timor-Leste
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Historically a common and widespread species, Mauremys reevesii is now a rare species in the wild. The species is commercially farmed in vast quantities in P.R. China and captive populations likely amount to millions of individuals.|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Mauremys reevesii is a generalist inhabitant of vegetated shallow lowland ponds, pools and marshes, including wetlands in agricultural landscapes if the species is not collected. It feeds on a variety of plant and small animal matter, with snails possibly representing a significant part of the diet of mature females.|
Males rarely exceed 11 cm carapace length (CL), females can reach up to 24 cm CL. Females reach maturity in about five to six years in captivity and may produce several clutches of three to five eggs annually; reproductive data of wild populations appear unreported.
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Use and Trade:||Mauremys reevesii traditionally was widely used and traded for medicinal purposes, the plastron bones being used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. As wild supplies dwindled, aquaculture of the species expanded greatly since the early 1990s.|
Wild populations of Mauremys reevesii are threatened first and foremost by intensive targeted collection to supply the consumption, medicinal and aquaculture supply trades.
In addition, habitat destruction and degradation due to urbanization and pollution is also an important threat for this lowland species.
|Conservation Actions:||Mauremys reevesii is listed in CITES Appendix III (China). Assurance colonies (comprising animals of generally unknown geographic origin and genetic profile) and large-scale commercial farm holdings will ensure that the species itself will not go extinct anytime soon, but it has already disappeared as a common landscape species across most of its range; its best prospects for survival in the wild lies in strict protection and appropriate management of lowland wetland protected areas within its original range, and eventually re-introduction into regions where the species has been extirpated by overexploitation.|
|Errata reason:||An errata assessment is required to generate a revised PDF without the range map which had been included in error; no range map was available when this assessment was originally published.|
|Citation:||van Dijk, P.P. 2011. Mauremys reevesii (errata version published in 2016). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T170502A97431862.Downloaded on 22 February 2018.|
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