|Scientific Name:||Rastrelliger kanagurta|
|Species Authority:||(Cuvier, 1816)|
Rastrelliger serventyi Whitley 1944
Rastrilleger kanagurta (Cuvier 1816)
Scomber canagurta Cuvier 1829
Scomber chrysozonus Rüppell 1836
Scomber delphinalis Cuvier 1832
Scomber kanagurta Cuvier 1816
Scomber lepturus Agassiz 1874
Scomber loo Lesson 1829
Scomber microlepidotus Rüppell 1836
Scomber moluccensis Bleeker 1856
Scomber reani Day 1871
Scomber uam Montrouzier 1857
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Data Deficient ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Collette, B., Di Natale, A., Fox, W., Juan Jorda, M. & Nelson, R.|
|Reviewer(s):||Russell, B. & Polidoro, B.|
This species is widespread in southeastern Asia. There is no information on population or general abundance. This species is targeted in commercial and artisanal fisheries throughout its range, but landings are primarily reported in combination with mixed Rastrelliger spp. Reported worldwide landings for Rastrelliger species have steadily increased since 1950 to over 800,000 tonnes, but no effort information is available. Given that effort is assumed to be increasing, and that there some evidence of localised declines, it is not known how this species population is affected by current and historical fishing pressure. This species is listed as Data Deficient. Given the absence of an international management body, further monitoring of this species is needed on the national level, in addition to species-specific data on landings, effort and population status.
|Range Description:||This Indo-West Pacific species is found from the Red Sea and East Africa to Indonesia, north to the Ryukyu Islands and China, south to Australia, Melanesia and Samoa. It entered the eastern Mediterranean Sea through the Suez Canal (Collette 1970).|
Native:Australia; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; China; Comoros; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Fiji; Guam; Hong Kong; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Japan; Jordan; Kenya; Kuwait; Macao; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Mozambique; Myanmar; New Caledonia; Northern Mariana Islands; Oman; Pakistan; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Qatar; Réunion; Samoa; Saudi Arabia; Seychelles; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Tokelau; Tonga; United Arab Emirates; Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Yemen
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Mediterranean and Black Sea; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Catches of the three species of Rastrelliger are not usually recorded separately. Reported worldwide landings show gradual increase for all three Rastrelliger species, with combined reported landings increasing from 200,000 tonnes in 1950 to over 800,000 tonnes in 2006 (FAO 2009).
In India, from 1993-1999, annual average catch was around 200,000 tonnes but has declined to 90,000 tonnes (Johannan and Nair 2002). In one region of Mangalore-Malpe, Karnataka in Eastern India, this species is considered at to be exploited at levels higher than optimum, indicating greater fishing pressure than sustainable levels (Rohit and Gupta 2004). Other studies (Abdussamad et al. 2010) report that since the species mature at an early age and spawn round the year, present fishing pattern appears to have no adverse impact on recruitment, and currently the resource is exploited near the optimum level and there appears to be no immediate threat for the stock.
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This species occurs in coastal bays, harbors and deep lagoons, usually in some turbid plankton-rich waters. A common, coastal pelagic species, often found in large schools. Off India, batch spawning extends from March through September. It feeds on phytoplankton (diatoms) and small zooplankton (cladocerans, ostracods, larval polychaetes, etc.). Small groups were seen eating eggs of Cheilio inermis straight after their spawnings. Adult individuals feed on macroplankton such as larval shrimps and fish.
There are many reports on life history and other information for this species compared to other Rastrelliger species (Noble and Geetha 1992). Size at first maturity is approximately17–20 cm (Tampubolon and Merta 1987, Sivadas et al. 2006), and longevity is estimated to be approximately four years (Mehanna 2001).
|Use and Trade:||This species is important in commercial and artisanal fisheries throughout its range.|
This species is highly commercial, and is caught with a number of different gears including purse-seines, fish corrals, gill-nets, cast and drift nets, and by dynamiting. It is marketed fresh, frozen, canned, dried salted and smoked (Collette 2001).
Worldwide reported landings of Rastrelliger species are increasing, and although there is no information on effort, it is also assumed to be increasing.
|Conservation Actions:||There are no species-specific conservation measures. Although landings are increasing, without information on effort, it is not known if current fishing activities are affecting population abundance. Better reporting is needed to determine species specific landings if possible. Additionally, given the high combined landings for this species and unknown level of effort and the absence of an international management body, further monitoring of this species is needed on the national level.|
|Citation:||Collette, B., Di Natale, A., Fox, W., Juan Jorda, M. & Nelson, R. 2011. Rastrelliger kanagurta. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 27 March 2015.|
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