|Scientific Name:||Scomberomorus sierra|
|Species Authority:||Jordan & Starks, 1895|
Sometimes this species has been erroneously considered a synonym of the western Atlantic Scomberomorus maculatus.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Collette, B., Acero, A., Canales Ramirez, C., Cardenas, G., Carpenter, K.E., Cotto, A., Medina, E., Guzman-Mora, A., Di Natale, A., Montano Cruz, R., Nelson, R., Schaefer, K., Serra, R. & Yanez, E.|
|Reviewer(s):||Russell, B., Walker, H., Findley, L., Lea, B. & Polidoro, B.|
This species is widespread and population levels appear to be fluctuating at least in Peru, but is relatively stable at present despite an active fishery and is therefore listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is found from La Jolla and Santa Monica in southern California (Collette et al. 1963, Miller and Lea 1972) and the Gulf of California to Antofagasta, Chile including the Galápagos, Cocos and Malpelo Islands.|
Native:Chile; Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Peru; United States
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – southeast
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
This species is frequently taken by anglers along the Pacific coast of Central America and is abundant enough to support a commercial fishery. FAO worldwide reported landings show a gradual, but variable, increase in landings from 500 tonnes in 1950 to 12,102 tonnes in 2006 (FAO 2009). These landings of this species appear to be fairly stable between 5,000 and 10,000 metric tonnes over the last 10 years (1995–2005). These data are mostly from Mexico and Panama, but landings also fairly stable in Nicaragua, Colombia and Peru. In 1995, the average catch in Colombia was 600 metric tonnes, and has reduced to 400 metric tonnes in the last five years (Acero pers comm 2008). There are large fluctuations in Peruvian landings, and there appears to be higher catches after El Niño events (Cardenas pers comm 2008).
In summary, the regional landing data show no clear trends with periodic fluctuations in catch.
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This is a schooling species that is believed to spawn close to the coast throughout most of its range (Collette and Nauen, 1983). It occurs near the surface of coastal waters to over bottom on the continental shelf. In Colombia (Artunduaga Pastrana 1976), adults feed on small fishes, particularly anchovies (Anchoa and Cetengraulis) and clupeids (Odontognathus and Opisthonema). Off of Mexico the spawning season extends from July to September.
In Mexico, gonad maturity in females begins in April with spawning taking place in May (Aguirre-Villaseñor et al. 2006). Maximum incidence of ripe females occurs between November and April in Colombia, with a fork length of 26–32 cm at first maturity (Artundaga Pastrana 1976). In the Gulf of California, the size at first maturity is 44.3 cm corresponding to an age of three years (Aquirre-Villasenor et al. 2006). Ripe females are found between late August and the end of November in the Gulf of Nicoya (Erdman 1971). Spawning takes place near the coast over most of its range, off Mexico in July through September (Klawe 1966).
Based on a maturity range of 1–8 years inferred from S. maculatus (Schaefer 2001), and an estimate of the average age of 50% maturity, a generation length of approximately 2–4 years is estimated. However, there is very little biological information to accurately determine generation length.
Maximum size is 97 cm FL, 8.2 kg. The all-tackle game fish record is shared by two 8.16 kg fish from Ecuador caught in 1990, one from Salinas, and the other from Isla de la Plata (IGFA 2011).
|Use and Trade:||This is a game fish and it is important in commercial fisheries.|
|Major Threat(s):||This is an abundant game fish along the Pacific coasts of Mexico and Central America, and it is important in commercial fisheries. It is caught by gill nets in artisinal fisheries throughout Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and Colombia, with no fisheries regulations for this species.|
There are no known species-specific conservation measures for this species. However, in Mexico, there is a sport fishing limit of 10 per day per person, and no more than five of a single species for all sport fisheries. In Peru, there is a minimum catch size of 60 cm and there is a maximum tolerance of 10% juveniles in the catch.
More research is needed on this species biology, particularly on age, growth, reproductive biology, and natural mortality rates.
|Citation:||Collette, B., Acero, A., Canales Ramirez, C., Cardenas, G., Carpenter, K.E., Cotto, A., Medina, E., Guzman-Mora, A., Di Natale, A., Montano Cruz, R., Nelson, R., Schaefer, K., Serra, R. & Yanez, E. 2011. Scomberomorus sierra. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 May 2015.|
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