|Scientific Name:||Euthynnus lineatus|
|Species Authority:||Kishinouye, 1920|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Collette, B., Acero, A., Canales Ramirez, C., Cardenas, G., Carpenter, K.E., Di Natale, A., Guzman-Mora, A., Montano Cruz, R., Nelson, R., Schaefer, K., Serra, R. & Yanez, E.|
|Reviewer(s):||Russell, B. & Polidoro, B.|
This species is widespread in the Eastern Pacific, appears to be fairly common, has little directed fishing effort at present and is therefore listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is found from San Simeon, California and the lower half of the Gulf of California to northern Peru, including all the offshore islands and Galápagos. Also, two stray specimens (vagrants) were caught in the Hawaiian Islands (Collette and Nauen 1983).|
Native:Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador (Galápagos); El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Peru; United States
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – southeast
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There is no specific fishery for this species but it may be taken incidentally. Yearly catches in the eastern Pacific in the 1970s totalled around 1,500 tonnes yearly (Collette 1995). FAO reported landings highly fluctuate and range from 0.5 tonnes in 1971 to a high of 3,299 tonnes in 1980 to 151 tonnes in 2006 (FAO 2009). Purse seine landings for this species reported by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (IATTC) (2008) range from 1,000 to 4,000 tonnes over the 1993–2007 time period, with no observable trend in these data.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This pelagic and oceanodromous species rarely occurs where surface temperatures fall below 23°C. Its larvae are more frequently encountered at temperatures above 26°C. It is mostly confined to surface waters within about 240 miles off the mainland (CENAIM 1992). It can form multi-species schools with Thunnus albacares and Katsuwonus pelamis. It is an opportunistic predator which shares its feeding pattern with other tunas and probably competes for food with other species such as Yellowfin Tuna, Common Dolphin, and Oriental Bonito.
The length at 50% maturity for this species is estimated to be 47 cm (Schaefer 1987).
This species spawns extensively, both geographically and temporally, throughout its respective range (Schaefer 2001). Although spawning distributions of all three Euthynnus species have been reported to be restricted primarily to peripheral areas and around islands within their respective ocean basins (Yoshida 1979, Nishikawa et al. 1985), spawning in the eastern tropical Pacific has been shown to be widely distributed from coastal to oceanic waters (Schaefer 1987). The batch fecundity of this species has been shown to increase with latitude in the Eastern Pacific (Schaefer 1987).
Maximum size is 84 cm fork length (FL). The all-tackle gamefish record is of a 11.79 kg fish caught on Thetis Bank, Baja California in 1991 (IGFA 2011).
|Use and Trade:||This species is important in minor commercial fisheries.|
|Major Threat(s):||The main method of harvesting this species is using purse seines, although it is also caught with pole and line. This species is an important commercial fish in Golfo de Montijo, Panamá (Vega 2004). This species is also targeted in Ecuador. Historically this species was targeted and canned in Costa Rica. It was important previously as a sport fish in Gorgona, Colombia (Rojas pers. comm. 2008).|
There are no known conservation measures for this species. However, this species distribution falls into a number of Marine Protected Areas in the eastern tropical Pacific region (WDPA 2006), especially Cocos, Galápagos and Malpelo Marine Protected Areas.
There have been previous Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) area wide closures in the Eastern Pacific for all species (including this one), such as the six-week periods from 1 Aug–11 Sept and from 15 Nov–31 December.
|Citation:||Collette, B., Acero, A., Canales Ramirez, C., Cardenas, G., Carpenter, K.E., Di Natale, A., Guzman-Mora, A., Montano Cruz, R., Nelson, R., Schaefer, K., Serra, R. & Yanez, E. 2011. Euthynnus lineatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 June 2015.|
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