|Scientific Name:||Scomberomorus guttatus|
|Species Authority:||(Bloch & Schneider, 1801)|
Cybium crookewitii Bleeker 1851
Cybium guttatum (Bloch & Schneider 1801)
Cybium interruptum Cuvier 1832
Cybium kuhlii Cuvier 1832
Indocybium guttatum (Bloch & Schneider 1801)
Scomber guttatus Bloch & Schneider 1801
Scomber leopardus Shaw 1803
Scomberomorus crookewiti (Bleeker 1851)
Scomberomorus guttatum (Bloch & Schneider 1801)
Scomberomorus interruptus (Cuvier 1832)
Scomberomorus kuhlii (Cuvier 1832)
Scomberomous guttatum (Bloch & Schneider 1801)
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Data Deficient ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Collette, B., Di Natale, A., Fox, W., Juan Jorda, M. & Nelson, R.|
|Reviewer(s):||Russell, B. & Polidoro, B.|
This species is widespread, and is targeted in commercial and artisanal fisheries throughout its range. Reported catch landings in the Indian Ocean have increased over the past 50 years to an average of 31,000 tonnes in 2003–2007, but there is no information on effort. Similarly, catch statistics for this species are often mixed with S. lineolatus and S. koreanus in at least half of this species range. There is no information on catch or effort in the south and northeastern portion of its range. This species is listed as Data Deficient.
|Range Description:||This species is found in the Indo-West Pacific from the Persian Gulf, India and Sri Lanka to southeast Asia, north to Hong Kong and Wakasa Bay, Sea of Japan.|
Native:Bahrain; Bangladesh; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; China; Hong Kong; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Japan; Kuwait; Macao; Malaysia; Myanmar; Oman; Pakistan; Philippines; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; Singapore; Sri Lanka; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; United Arab Emirates; Viet Nam
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
FAO worldwide reported landings show a gradual increase from 300 tonnes in 1950 to 39,086 tonnes in 2006 (FAO 2009).
The Indo-Pacific King Mackerel is mostly caught by gillnet fisheries in the Indian Ocean, in particular artisanal fleets from India and more recently Indonesia. The catch estimates for Indo-Pacific King Mackerel were derived from very small amounts of information and are therefore highly uncertain. The catches are based on the information available at the Secretariat and the following observations on the catches cannot currently be verified. Estimated catches have increased steadily since the mid 1960s, reaching around 10,000 t in the early 1970s and over 30,000 t by 1989. The average annual catch estimated for the period 2003–2007 is 31,600 t. In recent years, the countries attributed with the highest catches are Indonesia, India and Iran (IOTC 2007). The Indian Ocean catch data has been relatively stable since 1983, but there is no information on effort to interpret these landings, and no recent stock assessment. In India and in the middle of its range, many reported catches are mixed with S. lineolatus and S. koreanus.
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This is a pelagic migratory fish inhabiting coastal waters at depths to 200 m, it sometimes enters turbid estuarine waters, and is usually found in small schools. It feeds mainly on small schooling fishes (especially sardines and anchovies), squids and crustaceans. Fishing peaks in the months of November and December in Eastern Thailand, late Dec and January in the northern part of the Gulf and January to March in its western part.
Adults can reach a maximum length of 76 cm fork length. Maturity is reached at around 48–52 cm total length (TL) or 1–2 years old in southern India, and about 40 cm (TL) in Thailand. Length at 50% maturity is 37.5 (cm) for females (Krishnarnoorthy 1958). Based on the occurrence of ripe females and the size of maturing eggs, spawning probably occurs from April to July in southern India and in May in Thailand waters. Fecundity increases with age in the Indian waters, ranging from around 400,000 eggs at age two years to over one million eggs at age four years (IOTC 2007). This species may live to be 16 years old (Devaraj 1977).
|Use and Trade:||This species is fished throughout its range.|
|Major Threat(s):||This species is highly commercial and caught with gill-nets, midwater trawls, purse seines, bamboo stake traps, set nets and by trolling. It is marketed mainly fresh; also dried-salted, smoked and frozen (Collette 2001). In India, this species is caught with hand-lines and boat seiners in offshore waters. Small quantities of frozen product are exported to Europe and North America.|
|Conservation Actions:||There is no species-specific information available for this species. Effort information is needed to better interpret the increase in landings.|
|Citation:||Collette, B., Di Natale, A., Fox, W., Juan Jorda, M. & Nelson, R. 2011. Scomberomorus guttatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 04 August 2015.|
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