|Scientific Name:||Phenacobius teretulus|
|Species Authority:||Cope, 1867|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Cope, E.D. 1867. Description of a new genus of cyprinoid fishes from Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 19: 95-97.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Hammerson, G.A. & Ormes, M.|
This species has a somewhat small extent of occurrence, but it is listed as Least Concern in view of the fairly large number of subpopulations and lack of evidence of a substantial ongoing decline. Expert ichthyologists regard this species as more common or widespread than previously recognized.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Range includes the New (upper Kanawha) River drainage, North Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; mostly in the upper section of the drainage within the Blue Ridge Province (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is represented by a fairly large number of occurrences (subpopulations) and locations (as defined by IUCN).|
Menhinick (1991) mapped around 31 collection sites in North Carolina, well distributed throughout the species small range in the state. Jenkins and Burkhead (1994) mapped about 40 collection sites in Virginia. Stauffer et al. (1995) mapped eight collection sites in West Virginia, where the species was then known from only a few specimens from the Greenbrier, Gauley, and New rivers. Currently there are three extant populations in two streams; condition of populations estimated to be 30% good and 70% fair (D. Cincotta, pers. comm., 1997).
Total adult population size is unknown. This species has been regarded as generally rare or uncommon throughout the range (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994, Page and Burr 2011).
Kanawha shiners are localized and rare in West Virginia (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994). During 1991, 55 stations on 19 streams were surveyed in West Virginia; found at only 4 stations; 37 total collected, 36 from the upper East Fork Greenbrier River and one from the West Fork Greenbrier River; 19 specimens came form one station with an estimated abundance from that station of 30 fish/1,000 sq m; maybe extirpated from Indian Creek; unknown status in Laurel Creek; not observed in Williams River since the mid-1930s (Chipps et al. 1993).
In North Carolina, this species has a wide range in the New River drainage, but it is not common (Braswell 1991).
Distribution and abundance have declined over the long term in West Virginia and Virginia (Chipps et al. 1993; D. Cincotta, pers. comm., 1997), but the extent of the decline is uncertain.
Chipps et al. (1993) reported that the species is apparently well established in the East Fork Greenbrier River but may be disappearing from other sites in the Monongahela National Forest where it was found historically.
Overall, this species is currently stable (Warren et al. 2000). Jelks et al. (2008) removed it from the American Fisheries Society list of endangered, threatened, and vulnerable species, due to improved status.
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Juveniles and adults typically occur in riffles and runs of gravel, rubble, and boulder in cool to warm creeks and small to medium rivers. Young and small juveniles possibly prefer gentle currents.|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
Greatest threats are pollution and habitat alteration resulting from development, agricultural runoff, and industrial activities (Braswell 1991, Chipps et al. 1993; D. Cincotta and H. LeGrand, pers. comm., 1997).
Level of threat in North Carolina is moderate to low (H. LeGrand, pers. comm., 1997). Formerly the species was threatened in North Carolina by a now defunct proposal for two large impoundments (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994).
"Now doing fairly well in Virginia despite natural constraints of its distribution" (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994).
This shiner is considered very threatened in West Virginia (D. Cincotta 1997), where the species does not occur on the East Fork of Greenbrier River downstream of an industrial tannery discharge and has not been collected in Laurel Creek since a strip mining operation was established along the stream during the late 1970s. Isolation of existing populations could have an important influence on the reestablishment of populations in West Virginia and result in lose of genetic variation (Chipps et al. 1993). This species may be affected by trout stocking, excessive siltation, and acid rain (Chipps et al. 1993).
|Conservation Actions:||Currently, this species is of relatively low conservation concern and does not require significant additional protection or major management, monitoring, or research actions.|
|Citation:||NatureServe. 2013. Phenacobius teretulus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T16957A19034012.Downloaded on 24 January 2017.|
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