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Phaner pallescens

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA PRIMATES CHEIROGALEIDAE

Scientific Name: Phaner pallescens
Species Authority: Groves & Tattersall, 1991
Common Name(s):
English Pale Fork-marked Lemur, Western Fork-marked Lemur
Synonym(s):
Phaner furcifer (Groves & Tattersall, 1991) subspecies pallescens
Taxonomic Notes: Formerly a subspecies of Phaner furcifer, but regarded as distinct by Groves (2001).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2c+3c+4c ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2012-07-11
Assessor(s): Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Schwitzer, C., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A.
Reviewer(s): Schwitzer, C. & Molur, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Chiozza, F. & Clark, F.
Justification:

Listed as Endangered as the species is suspected to have undergone a population reduction of ≥50% over the past 24 years (three generations, assuming a generation length of 8 years) due primarily to observed continuing decline in densities, area, extent and quality of habitat due to slash-and-burn agriculture, illegal logging, charcoal production and annual burning to create pastures. These causes have not ceased, and will to a large extent not be easily reversible. A future population reduction of ≥50% over a 24 year period is also suspected due to the same causes.  

History:
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species, which has the largest range of any Phaner species, is patchily distributed along a narrow strip of western Madagascar forests from just south of the Fiherenana River, including the Forêts de Mikea, north to Soalala, from sea level to 800 m (Mittermeier et al. 2008). The northerly populations appear isolated and may possibly represent distinct taxa.
Countries:
Native:
Madagascar
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is in decline due to habitat destruction. In 1980, population density estimates derived from studies in the Kirindy Forest and from Marosalaza were about 50-70 individuals/km² (Charles-Dominique and Petter 1980). In the forests of Tsimembo, Ausilio and Raveloarinoro (1993) estimated densities to be 300-400 individuals/km². However, population figures have been in sharp decline over the past couple of decades (Kappeler P. pers. comm.). 

 

Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is found in lowland forest habitats, and also in exotic tree plantations, perhaps suggesting reliance on tall canopy trees and gum. This is the best studied of the four Phaner species; its biology and ecology are summarized by Schülke (2003) and and Mittermeier et al. (2008). The Pale Fork-marked Lemur has an unusual diet with a high percentage of tree exudates. Mating occurs in October/November. One offspring is born from late January to early March. Reproductive rates are low, with an average of only 0.3 offspring being produced per female and year. Nocturnal and arboreal. Family groups, consisting of an adult pair and their offspring, occupy and defend well-defined stable territories ranging from 3–10 ha, but the the adults only spend about 20% of their time less than 25 m distant from each other when not sleeping. Pair partners are on average 100 m apart from each other, which seems to be a strategy to avoid direct feeding competition.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Threats to this species include habitat loss due to slash-and-burn agriculture, illegal logging, charcoal production, and annual burning to create pasture.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of CITES. It is reported to occur in four national parks (Tsingy de Bemaraha, Tsingy de Namoroka, Kirindy Mitea and Zombitse-Vohibasia), the Tsingy de Bemaraha Strict Nature Reserve, and in the Andranomena Special Reserve. Found as well in the Kirindy Forest (part of the Menabe-Antimena Protected Area), the Tsimembo Classified Forest, and possibly in Andohahela National Park. With regard to the latter location, fork-marked lemurs have been recorded calling in and around Parcel 2 of Andohahela, but it is not known whether the form in question is P. pallescens or an as-yet undescribed species. This species is not being kept in captivity (ISIS 2009).



Citation: Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Schwitzer, C., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A. 2014. Phaner pallescens. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 October 2014.
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