|Scientific Name:||Stephanolepis hispidus (Linnaeus, 1766)|
Balistes hispidus Linnaeus, 1766
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Eschmeyer, W.N. and Fricke, R. (eds). 2015. Catalog of Fishes: genera, species, references. Updated 1 October 2015. Available at: http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp. (Accessed: 1 October 2015).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern (Regional assessment) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||González Pérez, J.A.|
European regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
Listed as Least Concern as this temperate tropical Atlantic is abundant and fairly common, and well studied. Overfishing could pose a serious threat to the species, and the potential effects of the fishtrap fishery on the species have to be investigated.
|Range Description:||This species is distributed in the temperate and tropical Atlantic Ocean. In the western Atlantic, it is known from Nova Scotia, Canada south along the U.S., Bermuda, the Bahamas, throughout the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, and along South America to Uruguay.|
In the eastern Atlantic, it is known from the Canary Islands (Brito et al. 2002), the Azores (Santos et al. 1997) and Madeira (Wirtz et al. 2008), along West Africa to Angola including the Cape Verde Islands and Sao Tome and Principe Islands (Harmelin-Vivien and Quéro 1990, Wirtz et al. 2007, Wirtz et al. 2013).
It is present at depths ranging from zero to 293 m, although in the Canary Islands it has been found between three and 180 m depth.
Native:Portugal (Azores, Madeira); Spain (Canary Is.)
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Atlantic – eastern central
|Population:||This species is considered common and populations are abundant. However, its population trend is unknown.|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The species is found on sandy or muddy bottoms, associated with Sargassum. In the Canary Islands, it inhabits shallow-water bottoms, including seagrass meadows and reefs. Although it can be found down to 293 m, it is more commonly found in shallower waters. |
Adults feed on benthic invertebrates, and studies on the sexuality, reproduction and age-and-growth in the Canaries have been done. Its maximum size is 27.5 cm TL and it attains 240 g. Besides, the size at maturity in the Canary Islands have been identified at 14.9 cm TL for females and at 13.9 cm TL for males. Its spawning season is from May to October, with a peak in September-October and a sex-ratio of 1:1 in the Canary Islands (González et al. 2012). The species is usually observed single or in groups of four to five fish swimming near the bottom in the Canary Islands (González et al. 2004).
|Use and Trade:||The species is much appreciated by consumers in the Canary Islands.|
|Major Threat(s):||This is a target species of the Canaries small-scale fisheries with hook-and-line, fish-traps and trammel nets around all islands of the archipelago, mainly in the easternmost ones (Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote). Overfishing mainly due to bottom fish-traps could be a serious threat in the Canary Islands (González et al. 2004, González et al. 2012).|
|Conservation Actions:||The species is not listed in any National Red Lists or Red Data Books. It is not the target of any conservation action, and it is unknown whether it is found in protected areas. Also, no minimum legal size has been established by the regulatory bodies (González et al. 2012). Further research is needed on the trend and the impacts of fishtrap fisheries on the species.|
|Citation:||González Pérez, J.A. 2015. Stephanolepis hispidus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T16781168A69013079.Downloaded on 21 November 2017.|
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