Terapon jarbua 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Terapontidae

Scientific Name: Terapon jarbua (Forsskål, 1775)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Tiger Perch, Crescent Grunter, Jarbua Terapon
Coius trivittatus Hamilton, 1822
Holocentrus servus Bloch, 1790
Pterapon trivittatus Gray, 1846
Sciaena jarbua Forsskål, 1775
Stereolepis inoko Schmidt, 1931
Terapon timorensis Quoy & Gaimard, 1824
Therapon farna Bleeker, 1879
Taxonomic Notes: Terapon jarbua was originally described as Scieana jarbua by Forsskål (1775) from Djedda, Red Sea. Golani and Appelbaum-Golani (2010) have suggested that the specimens from Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea differ slightly from the specimens collected from far east (Hong Kong and Japan) indicating that further molecular taxonomy research is necessary to clarify the identity of this taxon.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-06-20
Assessor(s): Dahanukar, N., Kaymaram, F., Alnazry, H., Al-Husaini, M., Almukhtar, M., Hartmann, S., Alam, S. & Sparks, J.S.
Reviewer(s): Sayer, C.
Contributor(s): Molur, S.
Terapon jarbua is assessed as Least Concern because it is a widespread species with no known widespread threats. However, research is essential on the population status, harvest level and threats to the species. Further studies on the taxonomy are also essential to know whether it is a complex of cryptic species.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Terapon jarbua is a widespread species distributed mainly in the Indo-West Pacific region (Talwar and Jhingran 1991, Rao et al. 2000). Recently this species was also recorded from the Mediterranean Sea (Golani and Appelbaum-Golani 2010). It is recorded from the Red Sea, Eastern Africa, India (probably all major rivers including the Ganges and Brahmaputra), Persian Gulf, Sri Lanka, Singapore, Indonesia, Australia, Philippines, Cambodia, Viet Nam, China, Japan and Korea.
Countries occurrence:
Australia; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Cambodia; China; Cyprus; Egypt; Hong Kong; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Japan; Kenya; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait; Lebanon; Madagascar; Mozambique; Myanmar; Oman; Pakistan; Philippines; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; Singapore; Solomon Islands; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Syrian Arab Republic; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Turkey; United Arab Emirates; Viet Nam; Yemen
Additional data:
Lower depth limit (metres):350
Upper depth limit (metres):20
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:No information is available on the population status of Terapon jarbua globally. However, it could be common in most of its range.

This species is common in the Persian Gulf. In 2005, 0.2 tonnes of this species was recorded in catches in Abu Dhabi Emerates (Hartmann pers. comm. 2014). From 1996 to 2010, catches in Saudi Arabia were 1.6, 1.7, 1.4, 2.5, 0.0, 2.0, 7.9, 13, 2.0, 9.0, 9.1, 3.0, 3.0, 3.0 and 3.0 tonnes (Hussein pers. comm. 2014). CPUA (Catch Per Unit Area) in scientific surveys for Terapontidae spp. in Iran were reduced 426 kg/sq nautical miles in 2008 to 33.5 kg/sq nautical mile in 2011 (Farhad pers. comm. 2014). Between 2001-2002, Paighambari and Daliri (2012) sampled shrimp trawl fisheries by-catch composition in the Bushehr province (Iranian waters). During the two fishing seasons, 11.6 and 28.97 kg of Terapon jarbua were collected as by-catch, which comprised 0.07 and 0.22% of the total catch, respectively. CPUE was determined to be 0.11 and 0.19 kg/h, respectively (Paighambari and Daliri 2012). Valinassab et al. (2006) conducted a trawl survey in the Gulf from 2003-2004 to assess the abundance of demersal fish resources in the Gulf and Oman Sea. Teraponids contributed 0.57% of the total biomass from the Gulf and 0.17% from the Oman Sea.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species lives in marine, coastal areas, estuaries, freshwater and some coastal lagoons (Rao et al. 2000). Even though the fish is primarily marine it moves considerable distance upstream into freshwater (Talwar and Jhingran 1991). The maximum size of the fish is 27 cm. It is a predator and a lepidophagous fish. It feeds on small fishes in the littoral zone (Whitfield and Blaber 1978) and scales of large fishes (Whitfield 1979).
Systems:Freshwater; Marine
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Terapon jarbua has a minor fishery value in some parts of its distribution. This species is caught with a variety of inshore fishing gear, including gillnets, traps, handlines, and bottom trawls (Vari 1984). It is marketed fresh and dried salted. It is also an aquarium fish.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): No information is available on threats to Terapon jarbua at the global level. However, this species can be caught as bycatch in the shrimp trawl fisheries in the Persian Gulf (Paighambari and Daliri 2012).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

There are no known species-specific conservation measures for this species but its distribution may overlap marine protected areas. Information is needed on the population status, harvest level and threats to Terapon jarbua. There is also a need to study the taxonomy of this widespread species to check the possible presence of cryptic species.

Citation: Dahanukar, N., Kaymaram, F., Alnazry, H., Al-Husaini, M., Almukhtar, M., Hartmann, S., Alam, S. & Sparks, J.S. 2017. Terapon jarbua. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T166892A46643542. . Downloaded on 24 April 2018.
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