|Scientific Name:||Pomacea canaliculata|
Pomacea immersa (Reeve, 1856)
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Pastorino, G. & Darrigan, G.|
|Reviewer(s):||Bohm, M., Collen, B. & Seddon, M.|
|Contributor(s):||Madhyastha, A., Duncan, C., Offord, S., Soulsby, A.-M., Dyer, E., Whitton, F., Kasthala, G., McGuinness, S., Milligan, HT, De Silva, R., Herdson, R., Thorley, J., McMillan, K., Collins, A. & Richman, N.|
Pomacea canaliculata has been assessed as Least Concern - this is due to the large native range size of the species, and the fact that is is a widely introduced and invasive species. Population densities reported for the species are also very high, and there is no evidence of any major threats to the species or its habitat.
Within the invasive range for this species, measures may needed locally to control this species, as it is impacting other species within the range.
|Range Description:||The species' native distribution is tropical and subtropical South America, including the Amazonas and the Plata basins; the southernmost record for the species is the Paso de las Piedras reservoir south of Buenos Aires province, and recently in Northern Patagonia: Balneario La Herradua, near the Limay River, province of Neuquén, Argentina (Darrigran et al. 2011). The species is the southernmost applesnail in the world (Estebenet and Martín 2002).
This species is an introduced species and is considered to be one of the worst invaders in recent time in the southeast Asian region. It has mostly been introduced in this region as a food item (Cowie 2002). It has been found in Taiwan since between 1979 and 1981 (Cowie 2002), in Japan since 1981 (Fujio et al. 1991), in the Philippines since either 1980 or 1982 (Mochida 1991, Anderson 1993, Halwart 1994), in southern China since 1981 (Cowie 2005, Shan et al. 2009), and has also been introduced to Korea (probably 1986), Sarawak and Peninsular Malaysia (1987), the Indonesian islands of Java and Sumatra (1989), Thailand (1989), Viet Nam (1988 or 1989) and Laos (1992) (Cowie 2002), as well as Hong Kong (Laup 1991), Cambodia (Cowie 1995), Singapore (Ng et al. 1993), Guam (Smith 1992, Eldredge 1994), Papua New Guinea (Laup 1991, Eldredge 1994), and Sri Lanka (Cowie 2005). The species has subsequently become a serious rice pest in much of the region - in the Philippines it is considered the number one rice pest and has caused huge economic losses (Cowie 2005).The species has also been introduced to North America; into canals and ditches in southeast Florida (Thompson 1997, 1999), Texas, central Ohio (Ghesquiere 2001), North Carolina, Virginia (United States Geological Survey 2011), the Dominican Republic (Cowie 2005), Georgia (NatureServe 2009), Langan Park and Three Mile Creek in Mobile, Alabama (D. Shelton pers. comm. in United States Geological Survey 2011), a pond bordering the Mobile-Tensaw River Delta in Baldwin County, Alabama (United States Geological Survey 2011), Lake Miramar in San Diego County, California, a pond near Yuma, Arizona (United States Geological Survey 2011), and in Hawaii (Tran et al. 2008) first on Maui in 1989, followed by Lanai (Cowie 1996) and all of the main islands including Kaua'i, O'ahu, Molokai'i, Lana'i, Maui, Hawai'i (Cowie et al. 2007). In Hawaii the species has become widespread and is a major taro pest (Cowie 2005).
Native:Argentina; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Colombia; Ecuador; Paraguay; Peru; Uruguay; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
Introduced:Cambodia; China; Dominican Republic; Guam; Hong Kong; Indonesia (Jawa, Sumatera); Japan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak); Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Singapore; Sri Lanka; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; United States (Alabama, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Hawaiian Is., Ohio, Texas); Viet Nam
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Population density estimates have been made for this species in its introduced range. In taro patches in Hawaii densities of over 130 m-2 have been reported (Tamaru 1996, Tamaru and Hun 1996). In rice paddies in the Philippines, densities are usually around 1-5 m-2, but have been recorded as high as 150 m-2 (Halwart 1994, Schnorbach1995); Anderson (1993) reported 1,000 mature individuals per m2 here, but it is thought that this was perhaps a mistake (Cowie 2002). In rice paddies in Japan, densities have been reported of 3-7 m-2 (Okuma et al. 1994) and 12-19 m-2 (Litsinger and Estano 1993).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Some ampullarids may be able to tolerate low levels of salinity, but do not generally live in brackish water habitats. Most are amphibious and inhabit slow-moving or stagnant water in lowland swamps, marshes, ditches, lakes and rivers (Cowie 2002). This species has been described as occurring in relatively still water in part of its native range in Argentina (Scott 1957). The species is also more resistant to lower temperatures than most other snails from the Pomacea genus (Cowie 2005). This species is sexually mature at 2.5 cm (Ghesquiere 2001). In its native temperate range in South America, the species reaches maturity at 2 years and breeds for two annual breeding seasons with a life-span of about 4 years due to seasonality (temperatures fluctuating from 7°C-28°C). At a constant temperature of 25°C, the species has been reported to reach maturity after 7 months and complete one single breeding season of about 4 months, after which it died (Estebenet and Cazzaniga 1992). This effect of temperature may account for the success of the species in tropical regions and explain the proliferation of its invasion in South East Asia (Cowie 2002). Maximum size of the species can reach 3 cm in Hawaii, but in Asia can reach 6.5 cm (Schnorbach 1995) to 9 cm (Heidenreich et al. 1997). Ampullarids are dioecious, internally fertilizing and oviparous, though some species have been found to change sex. In this species oviposition takes place above water and predominately at night or early morning (Cowie 2002). A clutch is bright red in colour and contains 200 to 600 eggs (Ghesquiere 2001).|
|Use and Trade:||The species is used widely in the South East Asian part of its introduced range as a food item. It was introduced throughout its range here to be used for both local consumption and international export to the gourmet restaurant trade. Internationally, it is also widely used in the aquarium trade (Cowie 2002).|
|Major Threat(s):||There are no known threats to this widespread and highly invasive species.|
This species is not considered to require any conservation actions within the native range. There are no species-specific conservation measures in place or needed for this highly invasive species.
Within the invasive range, measures may needed locally to control this species, as it is impacting other species within the range.
This species has a NatureServe Global Heritage ranking of G5 - Secure (NatureServe 2009) due to its wide distribution in both its native and introduced range.
|Citation:||Pastorino, G. & Darrigan, G. 2012. Pomacea canaliculata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 May 2015.|
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