|Scientific Name:||Percina rex|
|Species Authority:||(Jordan & Evermann, 1889)|
Etheostoma rex Jordan & Evermann, 1889
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Hammerson, G.A. & Ormes, M.|
This species is listed as Vulnerable because its extent of occurrence is less than 20,000 sq km, area of occupancy probably does not exceed 2,000 sq km, number of locations does not exceed 10, and habitat is subject to ongoing degradation and is vulnerable to toxic spills.
|Range Description:||Range includes the upper Roanoke, upper Dan, and upper Chowan river systems (Roanoke River drainage), Virginia (USFWS 2007, Page and Burr 2011); recently found in North Carolina within a few miles of the Virginia state line. Populations are separated by wide river gaps or large impoundments (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994). The present distribution probably comprises remnants of a formerly more widespread distribution in these drainage systems (USFWS 2007).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Based on barriers such as major dams, eight discrete populations are known (USFWS 2007).
Total adult population size is unknown. Populations in the upper Roanoke and Nottoway rivers show comparatively high densities (see USFWS 2007).
Extent of occurrence and population density probably have declined over the past 200 years (USFWS 2007).
Upper Roanoke River population is dynamic but shows no evidence of decline (see USFWS 2007). Pigg River population may be slowly expanding in size and extent, due to recovery from a 1975 chemical spill (see USFWS 2007). Nottoway River population is increasing in range and density (see USFWS 2007). The species appears to be reproducing throughout its range (USFWS 2007).
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Habitat includes gravel and boulder runs of small to medium rivers (Page and Burr 2011). Typically this species occurs in warm, usually clear, small to medium rivers of moderate or somewhat low gradient; in riffles, runs, and pools with sandy to boulder-strewn bottoms. Rarely it has been found in impoundments. It inhabits streams that are mainly sandy or silty, and may occur only in gravelly or rocky areas (Burkhead and Jenkins 1991). Except in winter, all age classes are intolerant of moderately to heavily silted substrates (USFWS 1991). Young and juveniles usually occupy slow runs and pools with clean sand bottoms (USFWS 1991). In winter, it presumably occurs under boulders in deep pools.
Males are associated with shallow riffles during the reproductive period; females are common in deep runs over gravel and small cobble, where they spawn (USFWS 1991). Eggs are adhesive and demersal (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994).
|Use and Trade:||This species is not utilized.|
|Major Threat(s):||Decline over the long term likely resulted from reservoir creation and widespread siltation caused by land development and agricultural activities (USFWS 2007). The upper Roanoke River population is threatened by ongoing urbanization, industrial development, water supply and flood control projects, and agricultural runoff in the upper basin (USFWS 1991, 2007); known threats continue to exist in the Roanoke River drainage (USFWS 2007). Smith River population is threatened by operation of Philpott Dam and by continued siltation from upstream agriculture (USFWS 2007). Threats (mainly siltation) in the Nottoway River recently have decreased (see USFWS 2007). Other populations are subject to siltation from agricultural and other human activities and to potential chemical spills.|
|Conservation Actions:||Obtain further life-history information. Research captive breeding potential. See USFWS (2007) for recommendations for future actions.|
|Citation:||NatureServe 2013. Percina rex. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 October 2014.|
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