|Scientific Name:||Bencomia exstipulata Svent.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable D2 ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Bañares Baudet, A., Carqué Álamo, E., Palomares Martínez, A. & Marrero Gómez, M.V.|
|Reviewer(s):||Bilz, M. & Peraza Zurita, M.D.|
Bencomia exstipulata is classed as Vulnerable as its area of occupancy is 12 km². Slow reproductive dynamics and predation limit the expansion of this species.
Bencomia exstipulata is a plant native to the Canary Islands, Spain. It grows on the mountains of the islands of La Palma and Tenerife at altitudes from 2,000 to 2,100 m asl. (Marrero Gómez et al. 2004). In Tenerife, there is only one single small natural subpopulation in the Teide. Two more natural subpopulations were reported in the past: one of them disappeared and the other one has not been found again. In La Palma there are two natural subpopulations, the one at Tajodeque and one more, recently discovered, in Cabecera del Barranco de Hoyo Verde.
The species has been re-introduced to more locations so the number of confirmed locations is 12. Its area of occupancy has been estimated in 12 km².
Native:Spain (Canary Is.)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The three natural subpopulations include 111 individuals. More individuals have been reintroduced into the wild in the protected areas Parque Nacional de la Caldera de Taburiente and Parque Nacional del Teide (Marrero Gómez et al. 2004). Total population size was reported to be between 654 (Marrero Gómez et al. 2004) and 1,145 specimens (Gobierno de Canarias 2004). In La Palma, population size has been reported to be 3,333 individuals, from which 3,126 are reproductive individuals. In Tenerife, a total of 1,098 reproductive individuals have been counted.|
This total population size comprises natural individuals and reintroduced specimens which are considered reproductive population. Total population trend is increasing, though slowly, because of the slow reproductive dynamics of the species and the low rates of survival of the seedlings, which frequently die due to drought events.
The species has extremely slow propagation dynamics. Germination takes several years to occur. The low recruitment and the high longevity of the adult individuals are balanced so the natural subpopulations show certain stability though there is complete predominance of adult individuals.
|Current Population Trend:||Increasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:|| This shrub grows in high mountain areas on slopes, on rocky substrates and cracks, within the association Greenovion aureae. It can also be found at foothills, where the soil is deeper and more developed, characterised by the association Spartocytision supranubii (Marrero Gómez et al. 2004). It grows rarely on flat areas (Buord and Lesouëf 2006). It can also grow in the understorey of high altitude pine forests.|
Predation by introduced species such as rabbits has been reported as an important threat to the species (Marrero Gómez et al. 2004). Its low reproductive rates and the low number of individuals present in natural subpopulations are also threats. Game species, Mouflon and Barbary Sheep, are also threats to the species (Buord and Lesouëf 2006). Predation by goats and rats, and fires are furthermore impacting on this species.
This species is listed under Appendix I of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention). It is listed VU D1 in the Spanish Red List (Moreno 2008) and as species "En peligro de extinción" in the national and regional catalogues of threatened species.
In Tenerife the populations are within the limits of the protected area Parque Nacional del Teide (SCI). In La Palma the species occurs throughout the protected areas Parque Nacional de la Caldera de Taburiente (SCI), Parque Natural de las Nieves (SCI) and SCI Barlovento, Garafía, El Paso y Tijarafe.
A recovery programme has been developed which includes research about the population biology of the species and the re-introduction of new individuals (Marrero Gómez et al. 2004, Buord and Lesouëf 2006).
Proposed actions include the continuation of re-introduction programmes, ex situ production of sexual and asexual propagation material and storage of seeds of the species in germplasm banks.
|Citation:||Bañares Baudet, A., Carqué Álamo, E., Palomares Martínez, A. & Marrero Gómez, M.V. 2011. Bencomia exstipulata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T165220A5992216.Downloaded on 19 January 2018.|
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