|Scientific Name:||Pelobates fuscus|
|Species Authority:||(Laurenti, 1768)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Further systematic work is currently under way on this taxon. It seems possible that it might be a complex of more than one species.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Aram Agasyan, Aziz Avci, Boris Tuniyev, Jelka Crnobrnja Isailovic, Petros Lymberakis, Claes Andrén, Dan Cogalniceanu, John Wilkinson, Natalia Ananjeva, Nazan Üzüm, Nikolai Orlov, Richard Podloucky, Sako Tuniyev, U?ur Kaya|
|Reviewer(s):||Cox, N. and Temple, H.J. (Global Amphibian Assessment)|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This is a lowland species found throughout much of the plains and hilly regions of Europe, including from eastern Netherlands, eastern Belgium and eastern France, east through Germany, Denmark, Sweden (northern limits) and Central Europe and Eastern Europe to western Siberia (Russia) and northwestern Kazakhstan. It ranges from sea level up to 675m asl. There is a very isolated population in Argenton-sur-Creuse in central France, and another isolated population (the endemic subspecies, Pelobates fuscus insubricus) in the Po Valley of northern Italy.|
Native:Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; France; Germany; Hungary; Italy; Kazakhstan; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Netherlands; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Sweden; Ukraine
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Populations are reported to be declining or rare in some European countries (e.g.. Italy, Sweden, Denmark, Slovenia, Hungary). It is generally common in Poland. The species is common and widespread in the European part of the former Soviet Union. It is extinct in Switzerland.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It is mostly present in open areas, generally avoiding moist soils. It inhabits clear spaces in coniferous, deciduous and mixed forests (and their edges), groves, steppes, fields, meadows, sand dunes, heath land, gravel pits, parks and gardens. Spawning sites are mostly permanent, small still waterbodies including ditches, ponds and lakes. It may occur in modified habitats such as rice fields (in Italy). Nocturnal and habitat specific.|
The species seems to be may be sensitive to water quality and soil structure. Pollution of wetlands by industry, domestic sewage and agriculture (including eutrophication), drainage of breeding pools and introduction of predatory fishes and crayfish are major threats to the species. The species is also threatened by loss of terrestrial habitats (such as meadows) by factors such as intensive agriculture (e.g., over-stocking of cattle) and mortality on roads (and off-road driving). The species is collected in small numbers for the pet trade.
Pelobates fuscus insubricus is a highly threatened subspecies. There are now 12 populations and in recent years it has declined strongly. In some areas it is threatened by the introduced crayfish. chytrid may be a problem (and may be now) in the near future. There is an Action Plan for this species in the Bern Convention.
|Conservation Actions:||It is protected by national legislation in most European range states. Listed on Appendix II of the Bern Convention. It is listed on Annex IV and Pelobates fuscus insubricus is listed on Annex II of the EU Natural Habitats Directive as a priority species. The species is recorded in a number of national and sub-national Red Data Books and Lists. It is present in many protected areas. In parts of this species' range, mitigation measures to reduce road kill have been established. A conservation programme is in place for the isolated population in central France. Populations benefit from pond creation and respond well to habitat restoration. In Sweden 99% of the population was lost between 1959-1989, however the species is now recovering due to reintroduction and population augmentation.|
|Citation:||Aram Agasyan, Aziz Avci, Boris Tuniyev, Jelka Crnobrnja Isailovic, Petros Lymberakis, Claes Andrén, Dan Cogalniceanu, John Wilkinson, Natalia Ananjeva, Nazan Üzüm, Nikolai Orlov, Richard Podloucky, Sako Tuniyev, U?ur Kaya. 2009. Pelobates fuscus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T16498A5951455.Downloaded on 26 August 2016.|
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