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Galanthus trojanus

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
PLANTAE TRACHEOPHYTA LILIOPSIDA LILIALES AMARYLLIDACEAE

Scientific Name: Galanthus trojanus
Species Authority: A.P. Davis & Özhatay
Taxonomic Notes: Galanthus trojanus is similar to G. nivalis and G. rizehensis: all three species flower in winter to spring, possess applanate vernation, have more or less linear leaves, and one green mark at the apex of each inner perianth segment (although G. trojanus sometimes also has two small green marks at the base). Galanthus trojanus can be distinguished from G. nivalis by its rather broad green leaves, and small inner perianth mark, restricted to the apical quarter of the segment. The leaves of G. trojanus are approximately 0.8–1.6 cm wide; the upper surfaces of the leaves are matt green (green with a very slight cast of grey) and the lower surfaces green and shiny. The leaves of G. nivalis are approximately 0.4–1 cm wide; the upper surfaces are glaucescent or infrequently nearly glaucous and the lower surfaces are glaucescent to glaucous (grey-green or grey). In G. nivalis there is sometimes a light grey stripe running down the centre of the leaf, a feature that is insignificant or absent in G. trojanus. Galanthus trojanus can be separated from G. rizehensis by its broad leaves, and the shape of the green mark on each inner segment. The leaves of G. rizehensis are usually 0.4–1 cm wide, which is significantly narrower than G. trojanus (0.8–1.6 cm wide), although the leaves of G. rizehensis are infrequently up to 1.4 cm wide. The leaf colour of G. rizehensis is similar to that of G. trojanus, but in the former species there is usually a faint grey stripe running down the middle of each leaf on the upper surface. The inner perianth segment mark of G. rizehensis is U- to V shaped, but in G. trojanus the mark is a wide, ill-defined, short V-shape. On the inner face of each inner perianth segment, the mark of G. trojanus covers most of the segment, and extends to the base; in G. rizehensis the inner face mark is more or less the same shape and size as that on the outer face, or only covers about half of the segment.The inner perianth segment mark of G . trojanus is more like that of G. nivalis than that of G. rizehensis. In G. trojanus and G. nivalis (and G. reginae-olgae) the ends of the mark are often expanded into the lobes of the segment, either side of the sinus. In G. rizehensis, by contrast, the ends of the mark are not expanded, or very rarely so. The inner perianth mark of G. trojanus sometimes resembles the most common type of mark found in G. woronowii, and may be reduced to two small eye-like marks either side of the sinus. Some specimens of G. trojanus have very small eye-like marks at the base of each segment, although this does not seem to be a frequent feature of the species. These eye-like marks have not been recorded in wild populations of G. rizehensis, but they are infrequently found in G. nivalis (e.g. in the Czech Republic). One immediate and obvious difference between G. trojanus and the two allied species is its overall size. Galanthus trojanus is much bigger than most wild variants of G. nivalis and G. rizehensis, being taller (length of scape), with longer leaves and larger flowers. However, it remains to be seen whether these differences will be maintained in cultivation. The distributions of G . trojanus, G. nivalis, and G. rizehensis do not overlap. Galanthus nivalis does not occur in the part of Turkey lying in Asia (Anatolia), and G. rizehensis does not occur in northwestern Turkey (Davis 2001, Davis and Özhatay 2001).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2011-01-27
Assessor/s: Davis, A.
Reviewer/s: Trias Blasi, A. & Bilz, M.
Contributor/s: Moat, J. & Gage, E.
Justification:
Galanthus trojanus is endemic to northwestern Turkey, and is restricted to the Çanakkale Province. Its extent of occurrence is 63 km², and there are three known populations. The habitat could decline rapidly due to deforestation and conversion of suitable habitat to pasture and crop land; mining occurs in the area and would influence populations if sites corresponded to this species habitat; there is also the threat of small-scale collection of bulbs by illegal collectors, and this could cause a slow, long-term decline. This species is also deemed to be climate change sensitive. Due to the limited extent of occurrence, a severely fragmented population and the range of threats this species is assessed as Critically Endangered.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This plant is endemic to northwestern Turkey where it is known only from the Çanakkale Province A(1)A. It has an extent of occurrence of 63 km², an area of occupancy of 39.5 km², and occurs at three locations.
Countries:
Native:
Turkey (Turkey-in-Asia, Turkey-in-Europe)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The species is only known from three small subpopulations.
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Galanthus trojanus grows in undisturbed, open woodlands, under Quercus cerris and is found on basalt, in humus-rich soil at an altitude from 350 to 590 m. It occurs with Quercus coccifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Paeonia peregrina, Ruscus sp., Scilla bithynica, Fritillaria bithynica, Anemone blanda, Crocus sp., Colchicum sp., Arum sp. and Ranunculus ficaria.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threat is from conversion of forest to pasture and cropland. Mining occurs in the area and may eventually influence the size, extent and number of populations. There is also small-scale collection of bulbs by illegal collectors; this activity seems to be restricted to collectors from outside Turkey.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: All Galanthus spp. are included under Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).
Citation: Davis, A. 2011. Galanthus trojanus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 April 2014.
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