|Scientific Name:||Oenanthe crocata L.|
There are no significant taxonomic issues associated with this name.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern (Regional assessment) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Cuttelod, A. & Bilz, M.|
|Contributor(s):||Rhazi, L. & Ali, M.M.|
European regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
EU 27 regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
This species is classed as Least Concern as it is widespread with stable populations and does not face any major threats.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
A sub-Atlantic species that is endemic to Morocco and western Europe. The species occurs in western Europe, from Ireland and the United Kingdom south through Belgium and France, Italy, and to the Iberian Peninsula.
Native:Belgium; France (Corsica, France (mainland)); Guernsey; Ireland; Isle of Man; Italy (Italy (mainland), Sardegna, Sicilia); Jersey; Portugal (Portugal (mainland)); Spain (Baleares, Spain (mainland)); United Kingdom (Great Britain, Northern Ireland)
|Population:||Oenanthe crocata appears to be widespread and abundant throughout its range.|
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Oenanthe crocata typically occurs on the margins of ditches, streams and rivers, in wet pasture and in wet woodland. It will also grow permanently submerged in fast-flowing streams in oceanic areas.|
|Use and Trade:||
Use in veterinary medicine is reported (Viegi et al. 2003).
Use in homeopathic preparations for human use is reported.
The leaves and roots of the species are highly toxic. The toxic principle is oenathetoxin, a polyunsaturated higher alcohol. It is a convulsant poison that is not affected by drying or storage (therefore remains toxic after cutting and chemical control). Very small amounts are sufficient to cause death. Poisoning of farm stock usually occurs without any warning signs. Horses and cattle show salivation, dilated pupils, respiratory distress and spasmodic convulsions; they usually die in convulsion. Animals that do not die may develop diarrhoea for two days, then slowly return to normal. Humans have been poisoned when leaves have been mistaken for those of celery, or the tuberous roots for parsnips (CEH 2005).
The roots have been used as poison for moles and rats, and in Sardinia they have been crushed and used to stun fish (Eland 2008).
There are no known past, ongoing or future threats to this species.
|Conservation Actions:||In France, the species is protected as regional level (Nord-Pas-de-Calais region), otherwise there are no conservation measures in place or needed.|
|Citation:||Lansdown, R.V. 2014. Oenanthe crocata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T164500A63735175.Downloaded on 18 December 2017.|
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