Najas marina 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Liliopsida Hydrocharitales Hydrocharitaceae

Scientific Name: Najas marina
Species Authority: L.
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Holly-leaved Naiad
French Grande Naïade
Najas fluviatilis Poir.
Najas gracilis (Morong) Small
Najas latifolia A.Braun
Najas major All.
Taxonomic Source(s): The Plant List. 2015. The Plant List. Version 1.1. Available at:
Taxonomic Notes: Numerous subspecies have been described within this species (Triest 1988) but these are not consistently recognised.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2015-10-09
Assessor(s): Lansdown, R.V.
Reviewer(s): Bilz, M.
Contributor(s): Molur, S., Allen, D.J., Király, G., Patzelt, A., Knees, S.G., Lakshminarasimhan, P., Gunaga, S., Anitha, K., Raghavan, R. & Rasingam, L.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Smith, K., Juffe Bignoli, D. & Garcia, N.
This species is classed as Least Concern because although there are countries particularly in the north, where it is scarce and two subspecies from the Mediterranean region require conservation action, throughout most of its range it is widespread with stable populations and does not face any major threats.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

This species has an almost cosmopolitan distribution, occurring in Africa north and south of the Sahara, including Indian Ocean Islands, from Europe east through Altai, Siberia, the Caucasus, Middle East and the Arabian Peninsula, throughout the Indian Subcontinent, Kazakhstan and Mongolia to the Amur and Primorsky provinces of Far Eastern Russia, China, Japan and the Korean Peninsula and south to Taiwan, Myanmar and Viet Nam. It also occurs in the Molucca Islands and Australia as well as the United States (Hultén and Fries 1986), Mexico and Central and South America (Artsdatabanken 2007-2009, Bundesamt für Naturschutz 2010, Castroviejo et al. 2010, CRSF/ZDSF 2010, efloras 2008, eFloras 2008b, Ermakova 2005, Hultén and Fries 1986, Kaplan 2010, Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet 2010, Preston, Pearman and Dines 2002, The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 2010, Triest 1988, Welten and Sutter 1982). It is widespread in western, northern and southern Africa and has been recorded from eastern Africa. 

Countries occurrence:
Albania; Algeria; Argentina; Aruba; Australia (New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, Victoria, Western Australia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahamas; Bangladesh; Belarus; Belgium; Benin; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Brazil; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; China (Anhui, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shandong, Shanxi, Xinjiang, Yunnan, Zhejiang); Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Croatia; Cuba; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Dominica; Ecuador (Galápagos); Egypt (Egypt (African part), Sinai); El Salvador; Eritrea; Estonia; Faroe Islands; Finland; France (Corsica, France (mainland)); Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Greece (Greece (mainland), Kriti); Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Haiti; Hungary; India; Indonesia (Maluku); Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Italy (Italy (mainland), Sardegna, Sicilia); Jamaica; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lebanon; Liberia; Libya; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Madagascar; Malawi; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Mexico; Monaco; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Netherlands; Niger; Nigeria; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Panama; Poland; Portugal (Portugal (mainland)); Puerto Rico; Réunion; Romania; Russian Federation (Altay, Amur, Buryatiya, Central European Russia, Chita, Khabarovsk, Krasnoyarsk, Primoryi, South European Russia, West Siberia); Rwanda; San Marino; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Serbia (Serbia); Sierra Leone; Slovakia; Slovenia; South Africa (Eastern Cape Province, KwaZulu-Natal, Northern Cape Province); Spain (Baleares, Canary Is., Spain (mainland)); Sri Lanka; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Taiwan, Province of China; Tajikistan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Togo; Tunisia; Turkey (Turkey-in-Asia, Turkey-in-Europe); Turkmenistan; Turks and Caicos Islands; Uganda; Ukraine (Ukraine (main part)); United Kingdom (Great Britain); United States (Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Wisconsin); Uzbekistan; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Viet Nam; Yemen (North Yemen, Socotra, South Yemen); Zambia; Zimbabwe
Additional data:
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):No
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):1800
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species is listed as Endangered in Norway and Vulnerable in Cyprus, Denmark, Switzerland and the UK, elsewhere populations appear to be reasonably abundant and stable (Kålås and Bakken 2006, Preston, Pearman and Dines 2002, Procházka 2001, Rašomavičius 2007, Stolze and Phil 1998, Tsintides 2007). It was formerly rare in the Czech Republic but many new localities have recently been discovered (Triest 1998), and the plant is classified as Vulnerable (Grulich 2012). Globally, the population is considered to be stable.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species typically grows in mesotrophic to eutrophic water in lakes, ponds and slow-flowing rivers as well as occasionally in rice fields, often in shallow water but up to a depth of six metres, it will also occur in alkaline or brackish water (Triest 1988, eFloras 2008). It is mainly found in waters of high temperature, pH, sulphates and high electrolyte concentrations (or in saline sites) on sand, silt, clay with shells and thick organic matter.

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This plant is occasionally used in aquariums. The young stem is edible and it is consumed in Viet Nam.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

There are no known past, ongoing or future threats to this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The plant is now assessed as Vulnerable in the Czech Republic (Grulich 2012), Endangered in Norway (B1b(ii,iii,iv,v)c(v)+2b(ii,iii,iv,v)c(v)) and as Vulnerable in Cyprus (D2), Denmark, Switzerland and the UK, elsewhere there are no conservation measures in place or needed.

Three subspecies have red list assessments in the Mediterranean region: ssp. ehrenbergii classed as Near Threatened, found in in Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt; ssp. arsenariensis is classed as Critically Endangered and is endemic to Algeria; ssp. armata classed as Least Concern and found in Spain, Corsica (France), Crete (Greece), Syria, Israel, Turkey, and Egypt.

Citation: Lansdown, R.V. 2016. Najas marina. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T164322A84701845. . Downloaded on 23 April 2017.
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