Caranx lugubris 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Carangidae

Scientific Name: Caranx lugubris Poey, 1860
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Black Jack
Taxonomic Source(s): Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.). 2015. Catalog of Fishes. Updated 3 February 2015. Available at: (Accessed: 5 February 2015).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2012-08-20
Assessor(s): Smith-Vaniz, W.F., Williams, J.T., Pina Amargos, F., Curtis, M. & Brown, J.
Reviewer(s): Cox, N.A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Comeros-Raynal, M.
This pelagic species is widely distributed, common and abundant where it occurs near offshore reefs. It is of minor commercial value and no major threats are known, therefore it is assessed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Caranx lugubris is distributed in tropical waters worldwide from the western Indian Ocean off South Africa, Reunion, Mauritius and Cargados Carajos and the Seychelles to the West Pacific including southern Japan, Tonga, and New Caledonia to Mexico and Costa Rica in the East Pacific and to the Atlantic Ocean including the Gulf of Mexico (Flower Garden Banks and surrounding area as well as the eastern Yucatan Shelf), Bermuda, Brazil, Trinidade Island, the Azores, Madeira, Ascension Island, Cape Verde and the Gulf of Guinea (Smith-Vaniz 1986, Paxton et al. 1989, Randall and von Egmond 1994, Heemstra 1995, Fricke 1999, Randall et al. 2003, Simon et al. 2013, R. Robertson pers. comm. 2014). Clarification is needed on its distribution in the Gulf of Mexico. The depth range for this species is 3-380 m (Lieske and Myers 1994).
Countries occurrence:
American Samoa; Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Aruba; Australia; Bahamas; Bangladesh; Barbados; Belize; Benin; Bermuda; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba; Brazil (Trindade); British Indian Ocean Territory; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; Cameroon; Cape Verde; Cayman Islands; China; Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Colombia; Comoros; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Cook Islands; Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Cuba; Curaçao; Disputed Territory (Paracel Is., Spratly Is.); Djibouti; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador (Galápagos); El Salvador; Equatorial Guinea; Fiji; France (Clipperton I.); French Guiana; French Polynesia; French Southern Territories (Mozambique Channel Is.); Gabon; Ghana; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guam; Guatemala; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Hong Kong; India (Andaman Is., Nicobar Is.); Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Jamaica; Japan; Kenya; Kiribati (Kiribati Line Is., Phoenix Is.); Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Liberia; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Marshall Islands; Martinique; Mauritius; Mayotte; Mexico; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Montserrat; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nauru; New Caledonia; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Niue; Norfolk Island; Northern Mariana Islands; Oman; Pakistan; Palau; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Pitcairn; Portugal (Azores, Madeira); Puerto Rico; Réunion; Russian Federation; Saint Barthélemy; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (Ascension, Saint Helena (main island)); Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Martin (French part); Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Samoa; Sao Tomé and Principe; Seychelles; Singapore; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; Spain (Canary Is.); Sri Lanka; Suriname; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Togo; Tokelau; Tonga; Trinidad and Tobago; Turks and Caicos Islands; Tuvalu; United Arab Emirates; United States; United States Minor Outlying Islands (Howland-Baker Is., Johnston I., Wake Is.); Vanuatu; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Viet Nam; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.; Wallis and Futuna; Western Sahara; Yemen
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Atlantic – eastern central; Atlantic – southeast; Atlantic – southwest; Atlantic – western central; Atlantic – northeast; Indian Ocean – western; Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – southeast; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – western central; Pacific – southwest
Additional data:
Lower depth limit (metres):380
Upper depth limit (metres):3
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species is common and abundant in offshore habitat in most parts of its range (B. Smith-Vaniz pers. comm. 2012). In northeast Brazil, this species was found to be common in the pelagic habitat from 5-70 m (Feitoza et al. 2005). It is not common in Cuba (F. Pina-Amargos pers. comm. 2012).
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Caranx lugubris is uncommon in shallow waters, and usually occurs in depths of 24-65 m or deeper, mostly in clear waters. This species is sometimes observed near drop-offs at outer edge reefs. It occasionally forms schools and primarily feeds on fishes (Fischer et al. 1990, Smith 1997). There is little information available on early life history characteristics. Prey items primarily consist of fish. The maximum recorded size of this species is 90 cm fork length (FL), but it is common to 70 cm FL (Smith-Vaniz 2002). No juveniles have been identified (B. Smith-Vaniz pers. comm. 2012). The all-tackle IGFA world angling record is 17.9 kg (Smith-Vaniz FAO ECA Guide in prep).

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Caranx lugubris is caught mainly by hook-and-line (Smith-Vaniz 2002). Separate statistics are not reported for this species. Its edibility is uncertain and has been linked to ciguatera poisoning in Cuba and in the Indo-Pacific (Smith-Vaniz FAO ECA Guide in prep). In the eastern central Atlantic, catches for this species are not reported separately, and Caranx spp. are mainly caught in the inshore fishery using purse-seines and in artisanal fisheries. It is rarely found in minor commercial fisheries in Jamaica (M. Curtis pers. comm. 2012). Based on the CECAF south working (2009) which covers Guinea Bissau to Angola, catch landings for Caranx spp. from 1990-2008 show and increase from 4,000 to more than 16,000 metric tonnes (Williams pers. comm. 2103). In most countries in the Eastern Central Atlantic, this species is reported within Caranx spp. which are generally caught in artisanal fisheries. There is indication that catch may be declining as effort increased. In Cape Verde, this species group is considered more or less stable. From the 1960s until the present, landings have fluctuated around 4,000 metric tonnes per year, with short spikes in production (based on Jacks, Crevally nei in FAO Statistics for the region). This species is taken as bycatch in fisheries targeting mackerel in the Gulf of Mexico off Mexico (SAGARPA 2012).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats known for this species and there are no indications at present time of regional declines from harvesting.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this fish.

Errata [top]

Errata reason: This errata assessment has been created because the map was accidentally left out of the version published previously.

Citation: Smith-Vaniz, W.F., Williams, J.T., Pina Amargos, F., Curtis, M. & Brown, J. 2015. Caranx lugubris (errata version published in 2017). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T16431757A115357187. . Downloaded on 16 October 2018.
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