Map_thumbnail_large_font

Trapa natans

Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_onStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
PLANTAE TRACHEOPHYTA MAGNOLIOPSIDA MYRTALES TRAPACEAE

Scientific Name: Trapa natans
Species Authority: L.
Common Name(s):
English Water Chestnut
French Châtaigne d'Eau, Châtaigne d’eau, Mâcre, Mâcre nageante
Synonym(s):
Trapa astrachanica (Flerow) N.A.Winter
Trapa astrachanica (Flerow) N.A.Winter
Trapa carinthiaca (Beck) V.N.Vassil.
Trapa carinthiaca (Beck) V.N.Vassil.
Trapa colchica Albov
Trapa colchica Albov
Trapa conocarpa (F.Aresch.) Flerow
Trapa conocarpa (F.Aresch.) Flerow
Trapa cruciata (Glück) V.N.Vassil.
Trapa cruciata (Glück) V.N.Vassil.
Trapa europaea Flerow
Trapa europaea Flerow
Trapa hungarica Opiz
Trapa hungarica Opiz
Trapa maeotica Woronow
Trapa maeotica Woronow
Trapa muzzanensis (Jäggi) Szafer
Trapa muzzanensis (Jäggi) Szafer
Trapa rossica V.N.Vassil.
Trapa rossica V.N.Vassil.
Trapa septentrionalis V.N.Vassil.
Trapa septentrionalis V.N.Vassil.
Trapa spryginii V.N.Vassil.
Trapa spryginii V.N.Vassil.
Taxonomic Notes: The taxonomy of the genus Trapa appears to be complex. The distribution of T. natans sensu stricto is obscured by variation in the degree to which other taxa are recognised. It is likely that the information employed here will include information on other taxa and will therefore present a more positive idea of the status of the species than is actually the case.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2010-03-25
Assessor(s): Gupta, A.K.
Reviewer(s): Zhuang, X., Bounphanmy, S., Homsombath, K. & Juffe Bignoli, D.
Contributor(s): Allen, D.J.
Justification:
This floating aquatic plant is found most of Europe and Asia, and into China, and is considered an introduced invasive plant elsewhere. The species is widespread and although is declining in Europe, it is not thought to be in risk of extinction at a global level. It is therefore assessed as Least Concern.
History:
2013 Least Concern
2010 Least Concern (IUCN 2011.1)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: The species has a wide distribution through Eurasia and Asia. It has been reported from most of Europe, into southern Sweden and into European Russia. It occurs throughout most of Asia, into China, the Philippines and Malaysia. It has apparently been introduced into Australia and North America, where it is now widespread and may be invasive (Arber 1920, Cuong et al. 1973, Crow and Hellquist 2000, Tzvelev 2005, Chen et al. 2005, USDA 2010).
Countries:
Native:
Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Angola (Angola); Austria; Bangladesh; Belarus; Botswana; Bulgaria; China (Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Xinjiang, Yunnan, Zhejiang); Croatia; Czech Republic; France (France (mainland)); Germany; Greece (Greece (mainland)); Guinea-Bissau; Hong Kong; Hungary; India; Indonesia; Italy (Italy (mainland)); Japan; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Malawi; Malaysia; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Mozambique; Myanmar (Myanmar (mainland)); Namibia; Nepal; Pakistan; Philippines; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation (Central European Russia, East European Russia, North European Russia, Northwest European Russia, South European Russia); Serbia (Kosovo, Serbia, Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; South Africa; South Sudan; Spain (Baleares, Spain (mainland) - Regionally Extinct); Sudan; Sweden; Switzerland; Taiwan, Province of China; Tajikistan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Tunisia; Turkey (Turkey-in-Europe); Uganda; Ukraine (Krym, Ukraine (main part)); Uzbekistan; Viet Nam
Regionally extinct:
Lithuania
Introduced:
Australia; United States
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The species is not very common in the wild across the Asian part of its range and it is very rare in Europe.
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This plant is an annual (up to 3 m height) floating-leaved plant, growing in stagnant waters, lakes, channels with weak currents, ponds and marshes. It primarily occurs in unpolluted nutrient-rich lowlands, but not in strongly calcareous waters that have a muddy bottom and plenty of light; it is important as food source for birds and provides fish spawning grounds.


Systems: Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The fruits are important in continental Asia, Malaysia and India, especially in China. Several countries in southeast Asia, and also Chinese communities in Europe and North America, import the fruit directly from China. It is widely cultivated across the region. Fruits are used in the preparation of liniments to treat elephantiasis, pestilent fevers, rheumatism, sores, sunburn and skin complaints. Used also as food for pigs and other livestock in southeast Asia.

In India, the kernel of the plant is used as laxative and is a good source of nutritious flour. The unripe kernels are also used as vegetable or eaten raw. The flour from the dried kernel provides a good source of income for people across India and Nepal.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In Europe the species is declining, however the causes of the decline are not clear, although they are usually attributed to loss and degradation of habitats. In Asia there are no major threats to the species, though wetland loss and degradation are likely to become significant there too.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Included in some regional and national red lists in Europe but no conservation actions required globally.

Citation: Gupta, A.K. 2011. Trapa natans. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 October 2014.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please fill in the feedback form so that we can correct or extend the information provided