Juncus bufonius 

Scope: Europe
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Liliopsida Poales Juncaceae

Scientific Name: Juncus bufonius L.
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Toad Rush
French Jonc des Crapauds
Spanish Junco de Rana
Juncus bufonius ssp. genuinus Cout.
Juncus bufonius ssp. vulgaris Boiss.
Juncus minutulus V.I.Krecz. & Gontsch.
Taxonomic Notes:

Throughout much of its range, J. bufonius represents a complex of taxa. TROPICOS lists 80 sub-specific combinations for this name, but Flora Europaea volume 5 lists the following as falling within the J. bufonius group: J. bufonius L., J. foliosus Desf., J. hybridus Brot., J. minutulus (Albert & Jahand.) Prain, J. ranarius Nees and J. sorrentini Parl. Some of these are recognised in some countries or by some authors but use is not consistent, thus, for example in the UK J. minutulus is considered a synonym of J. bufonius, while J. ranarius is treated as s synonym of J. ambiguus Guss., equally TROPICOS treats J. hybridus as a nomenclatural synonym of J. bufonius L. but IPNI does not. Work is needed to achieve a degree of consistency in recording of taxa within the J. bufonius group. Kirschner (2002) treats Juncus hybridus (= ambiguus), and J. ranarius as distinct species and does not include them in J. bufonius.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern (Regional assessment) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2010-02-01
Assessor(s): Lansdown, R.V.
Reviewer(s): Bernhardt, K.G. & Bilz, M.
Contributor(s): de BĂ©lair, G.
European regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
EU 27 regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
This species is classed as Least Concern as it is widespread with stable populations and does not face any major threats.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

J. bufonius has a sub-cosmopolitan distribution, occurring in North Africa, Africa south of the Sahara, including Madagascar and Mauritius and from Europe east through Siberia, the Caucasus, the Middle East, China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia and the Indian sub-continent to far eastern Russia, Sakhalin, Japan, the Korean Peninsula and Taiwan. It is also scattered throughout south-east Asia, Australia and New Zealand, and throughout North America including Hawaii, south through Mexico and Central America to South America. It occurs more or less throughout Europe, including the Mediterranean and Atlantic islands.

Countries occurrence:
Albania; Andorra; Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Faroe Islands; Finland; France (Corsica, France (mainland)); Germany; Gibraltar; Greece (East Aegean Is., Greece (mainland), Kriti); Guernsey; Hungary; Iceland; Ireland; Isle of Man; Italy (Italy (mainland), Sardegna, Sicilia); Jersey; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malta; Moldova; Monaco; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal (Azores, Madeira, Portugal (mainland)); Romania; Russian Federation (Central European Russia, East European Russia, Kaliningrad, North European Russia, Northwest European Russia, South European Russia); San Marino; Serbia (Kosovo, Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain (Baleares, Canary Is., Spain (mainland)); Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey (Turkey-in-Europe); Ukraine (Krym, Ukraine (main part)); United Kingdom (Great Britain, Northern Ireland)
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):595
Range Map:164042-1

Population [top]


J. bufonius is apparently widespread and abundant throughout its European range. It is extremely abundant in the UK, France, Germany, the Netherlands and many other countries.

Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

This species is widespread and abundant, occurring wherever suitable habitat occurs. Some populations may be vast and seed-set considerable. J. bufonius is a characteristic species of damp muddy habitats, occurring from cattle drinking bays on rivers, through the drawdown zones of large lakes and reservoir, through damp arable to building sites and damp areas in urban situations.

Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): No past, ongoing, or future threats exist to this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no conservation measures in place or needed.

Citation: Lansdown, R.V. 2011. Juncus bufonius. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T164042A5724401. . Downloaded on 22 July 2018.
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