|Scientific Name:||Samolus valerandi|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||García, N. & Tognelli, M.|
|Contributor(s):||Rhazi, L., Grillas, P., Rhazi, M., Knees, S.G., Patzelt, A., Neale, S. & Williams, L.|
This species is listed as Least Concern because it is widespread, able to exploit anthropogenic habitats and does not face any major threats.
This species has an almost cosmopolitan distribution occurring almost worldwide except parts of western Australia, sub-Saharan Africa and South America.
Native:Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Argentina; Armenia (Armenia, Armenia); Australia (New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria, Western Australia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Brazil; Bulgaria; Canada (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward I., Québec); Chile; China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hunan, Yunnan); Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Croatia; Cuba; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt (Egypt (African part), Sinai); Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Finland; France (Corsica, France (mainland)); Georgia; Germany; Greece (East Aegean Is., Greece (mainland), Kriti); Guernsey; Haiti; Hungary; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy (Italy (mainland), Sardegna, Sicilia); Jersey; Jordan; Kenya; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lebanon; Libya; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malta; Mexico (Baja California, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Guanajuato, Hidalgo, San Luis Potosí, Tamaulipas, Veracruz); Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Namibia (Namibia (main part)); Netherlands; Nigeria; Oman; Paraguay; Peru; Poland; Portugal (Azores, Portugal (mainland)); Puerto Rico (Puerto Rico (main island)); Romania; Russian Federation (Central European Russia, Kaliningrad); Saudi Arabia; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Somalia; South Africa (Eastern Cape Province, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga, Northern Cape Province, North-West Province, Western Cape); Spain (Baleares, Canary Is., Spain (mainland)); Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Tunisia; Turkey (Turkey-in-Asia, Turkey-in-Europe); Turkmenistan; Ukraine (Krym, Ukraine (main part)); United Kingdom (Great Britain, Northern Ireland); United States (Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin); Uruguay; Uzbekistan; Yemen (North Yemen, South Yemen); Zambia; Zimbabwe
|Lower elevation limit (metres):||1700|
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||2500|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
There is no information available on population trends in this species.
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This is a short-lived perennial found in small colonies by permanently wet and often seasonally flooded springs, flushed sea-cliffs, puddles, ditches, lagoons and lake shores. It is limited to very open mesic, often calcareous or somewhat saline soils. Populations are often impermanent, colonizing the small and transient specialized habitats which change as spring lines and water levels shift. Individuals are usually monocarpic, but may take several years to flower (Preston et al. 2002). It has also been reported from reed (Phragmites spp.) stands, wet pastures, and saline meadows.
|Use and Trade:||
There is no evidence that this species is used.
There are no known significant past, ongoing or future threats to this species.
In Hungary, the species is classed as Near Threatened and under national protection (Király 2007) and it is classed as Critically Endangered in Czech Republic (Holub and Procházka 2000). There are no further conservation measures in place or needed at global level.
|Citation:||Lansdown, R.V. 2013. Samolus valerandi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T163967A13571192. . Downloaded on 27 November 2015.|
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