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Architeuthis dux 

Scope: Global
Language: English
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_onStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Mollusca Cephalopoda Oegopsida Architeuthidae

Scientific Name: Architeuthis dux
Species Authority: Steenstrup, 1857
Synonym(s):
Architeuthis hartingii Verrill, 1875
Architeuthis japonica Pfeffer, 1912
Architeuthis kirkii Robson, 1887
Architeuthis martensi (Hilgendorf, 1880)
Architeuthis physeteris (Joubin, 1900)
Architeuthis sanctipauli (Velain, 1877)
Architeuthis stockii (Kirk, 1882)
Taxonomic Notes: The systematics of the Architeuthis group is not well understood since many species have been described from single and often incomplete specimens (Roper 1998). Some authors believe three distinct species may exist based on differences in their geographic distribution: Architeuthis dux in the North Atlantic, A. martensi in the North Pacific and A. sanctipauli in the Southern Ocean (Roper 1998; Norman 2003).  However, we treat Architeuthis as comprising a single global species.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2010-04-28
Assessor(s): Allcock, L. & Barratt, I.
Reviewer(s): Young, R., Vecchione, M. & Böhm, M.
Contributor(s): Duncan, C. & Carrete-Vega, G.
Justification:
Architeuthis dux is an oceanic species which has a wide geographic distribution and inhabits deep water where it is less susceptible to human impact. It is also not targeted by fisheries and is unlikely to be targeted in the future. We therefore consider it to be of Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species has a worldwide distribution and is apparently associated with upwelling. Its exact distribution is unknown, but records are prevalent from the North Atlantic, the North Pacific, and from off the coasts of South Africa and New Zealand.  It occurs to at least 900 m depth (Kubodera and Mori 2005).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Australia; Canada; Ireland; Japan; Namibia; New Zealand; Norway; South Africa; Spain; United States
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Atlantic – northwest; Atlantic – western central; Atlantic – southeast; Atlantic – northeast; Indian Ocean – western; Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – northwest
Additional data:
Lower depth limit (metres):900
Upper depth limit (metres):200
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population size is unknown.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This is an oceanic species occuring at mesopelagic depths. Males appear to attain smaller body sizes than females. Mature males have a mantle length of around 1,000 mm (Lordan et al. 1998) and females a mantle length of more than 1,800 mm (González et al. 2002).  Attempts to determine age and growth rate have produced varied results depending on the method used.  Gauldie et al. (1994) suggested that adults may attain maturity within three years.  Statolith growth increment counts suggest a life span of one to two years (Lordan et al. 1998, González et al. 2002). Recent isotopic analysis of statoliths of three individuals suggests a life span of less than 14 years and average depths of between 125 and 250 m (maximum depth of 500 m) off Tasmania (Landman et al. 2004).  Stomach content analysis suggest that like most other cephalopods they feed on a wide range of different prey items including crustaceans, fish and other cephalopods (Lordan et al. 1998). Architeuthis dux is probably an important prey species of sperm whales, Physeter catodon (Lordan et al. 1998). An immature female, based on ovarian oocyte counts, could have had a potential fecundity of up to approximately 9 million eggs (González et al. 2002). The oocytes are small in size and the young likely to be planktonic. The large nidamental glands suggest eggs are spawned into large gelatinous egg masses (Roper 1998).
Systems:Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The high levels of ammonium ions in the body tissue of this species mean that it is unlikely to be a target of commercial fisheries (Roper et al. 1984).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The threats to this species are not known.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no conservation measures needed and none in place. Research is required to better understand the taxonomy, population demographics and life history and ecology of this species.

Citation: Allcock, L. & Barratt, I. 2014. Architeuthis dux. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T163265A991505. . Downloaded on 26 July 2017.
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