|Scientific Name:||Sepietta oweniana|
|Species Authority:||(d'Orbigny, 1839-41 in Férussac & d'Orbigny 1834-1848)|
Sepiola oweniana d'Orbigny, 1840
Sepiola oweniana d'Orbigny, 1839-41 in Férussac & d'Orbigny 1834-1848
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Data Deficient ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Allcock, L. & Barratt, I.|
|Reviewer/s:||Reid, A., Rogers, Alex & Bohm, M.|
|Contributor/s:||Herdson, R. & Duncan, C.|
Sepietta oweniana has been assessed as Data Deficient as it is one of the most frequently taken cephalopods in some parts of its range (e.g., parts of the Mediterranean Sea) but separate landing statistics are not available.
|Range Description:||This species occurs from northern Norway to the Faroe Islands, United Kingdom and Ireland, along the Atlantic coast of continental Europe (North Sea, English Channel and Bay of Biscay) to the southwest of Spain and along the west coast of Africa to Mauritania (Reid and Jereb 2005). Its distribution range also includes the Mediterranean Sea and possibly eastern India (Reid and Jereb 2005).|
Native:Albania; Algeria; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Croatia; Denmark; Egypt (Egypt (African part), Sinai); Faroe Islands; France (France (mainland)); Germany; Greece (East Aegean Is., Greece (mainland), Kriti); Ireland; Israel; Italy (Italy (mainland), Sardegna, Sicilia); Lebanon; Libya; Malta; Mauritania; Montenegro; Morocco; Netherlands; Norway; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Portugal (Madeira, Portugal (mainland)); Slovenia; Spain (Baleares, Canary Is., Spain (mainland), Spanish North African Territories); Sweden; Syrian Arab Republic; Tunisia; Turkey (Turkey-in-Asia, Turkey-in-Europe); United Kingdom (Great Britain, Northern Ireland); Western Sahara
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – eastern central; Atlantic – northeast; Mediterranean and Black Sea
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population size of this species is unknown.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This abundant species has a wide geographic and depth range from the surface waters down to more than 1,000 m in depth (Reid and Jereb 2005). Although it is most abundant on the continental shelf and upper slope in the Atlantic (50 to 300 m in depth) and Mediterranean Sea (100 to 400 m in depth) (Reid and Jereb 2005). It prefers soft substrate habitats (i.e. muddy) where it buries during the day emerging to feed at night on shrimps (e.g. Maganyctiphanes norvegica, in the North Atlantic) as well as small decapods (e.g. Pasiphaea sivado, in the Mediterranean Sea) (Reid and Jereb 2005).
It is preyed on by a variety of fish species and sometimes cetaceans (Reid and Jereb 2005). This species lacks a light organ (Norman 2003). In mature males the bases of the first pair of arms are joined together and the first left arm has enlarged suckers and a hectocotylus like spoon shaped tip (Norman 2003). This species may undertake seasonal vertical migrations to track prey and does undergo migrations linked to reproduction in both the North Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea, for example, in the Mediterranean Sea there is a shoreward movement of mature individuals to shallow water to spawn in spring and summer (Reid and Jereb 2005).
Spawning appears to occur throughout the year at the population level with seasonal peaks in activity (Reid and Jereb 2005). In the western Mediterranean these peaks occur in spring and early summer; in the eastern Mediterranean these occur during the summer in the Tyrrhenian Sea; and two peaks from April to May and October to November in the Aegean Sea (Reid and Jereb 2005). The female spawns her sperical eggs intermittently over a period of time in shallow water, but occasionally down to 200 m in depth (Reid and Jereb 2005). The grey eggs are attached to a range of solid substrates including ascidians (Reid and Jereb 2005). The embryonic development takes 30 days at 20ºC and two months at 10ºC (Reid and Jereb 2005). After hatching growth is rapid and appears to be independent of temperature and its lifespan after hatching may be between six and nine months (Reid and Jereb 2005). It has been successfully reared in aquaculture (Reid and Jereb 2005).
|Major Threat(s):||This species is commercially fished throughout its distribution range, particularly in the Mediterranean where its flesh is considered to be tasty (Reid and Jereb 2005). It is also caught as bycatch (Reid and Jereb 2005).|
|Conservation Actions:||Research is required into trends in population size, distribution, life history traits and the impacts of harvesting.|
|Citation:||Allcock, L. & Barratt, I. 2012. Sepietta oweniana. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 05 December 2013.|
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