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Euphorbia stygiana subsp. santamariae 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Malpighiales Euphorbiaceae

Scientific Name: Euphorbia stygiana H.C.Watson subsp. santamariae H.C.Watson
Synonym(s):
Euphorbia stygiana H.C.Watson
Tithymalus stygianus (H.C.Watson) Soják
Taxonomic Source(s): WCSP. 2015. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Available at: http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered C2a(i); D ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2011-03-15
Assessor(s): Bilz, M.
Reviewer(s): Cuttelod, A. & Lutz, M.L.
Justification:
Euphorbia stygiana subsp. santamariae is endemic to the region São Lourenço on the island Santa Maria of the Azores. Its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 343 km². The habitat of the species is declining due to agricultural development, change in land use, and invasive species. The total population counts less than 50 mature individuals and has a declining trend. It is therefore classed as Critically Endangered.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Euphorbia stygiana subsp. santamariae is endemic to the Azores, where it is confined to the region São Lourenço on the island Santa Maria (Martín et al. 2008). Its EOO is 343 km² (Commission of the European Communities 2009).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Portugal (Azores)
Additional data:
Lower elevation limit (metres):700
Upper elevation limit (metres):1000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population counts less than 50 mature individuals and has a declining trend (Martín et al. 2008).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:10-50Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Euphorbia stygiana subsp. santamariae grows in beech forests (faial) (Martín et al. 2008). It develops in steep areas that are subject to disturbances. There are two types of habitat: firstly forest clearings or ecotones on saxicolous substrates, secondly slopes including banks of streams, hills, or rock walls where it develops in soil. It can be found in or at the edge of the following Habitats Directive listed habitats (Commission of the European Communities 2009):
  • 4050 Endemic Macaronesian heaths
  • 5330 Thermo-Mediterranean and pre-desert scrub
  • 8220 Siliceous rocky slopes with chasmophytic vegetation
  • 9360 Macaronesian laurel forests (Laurus, Ocotea)
  • 9560 Endemic forests with Juniperus spp.
Systems:Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The habitat of the species is declining due to agricultural development, change in land use, and invasive species and the subsequent increase in competition (Martín et al. 2008).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Euphorbia stygiana subsp. santamariae is listed on Annex II of the Habitats Directive and under Appendix I of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention).

Necessary conservation and research actions are (Martín et al. 2008):
  • Habitat management and protection
  • Management of threats such as the control of invasive species and regulation of tourism activities
  • Species recovery programmes
  • Translocation of subpopulations
  • Studies on the taxonomy, biology, ecology and population dynamics

Amended [top]

Amended reason: This assessment was previously for the assessment Euphorbia stygiana,  following communication from the specialist group and outside expert it was realised that this assessment just covered the subspecies Euphorbia stygiana subsp. santamariae, the old species has therefore been demoted to a subspecies and a new concept for the species created.

Citation: Bilz, M. 2017. Euphorbia stygiana subsp. santamariae. (amended version published in 2011) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T162422A120954821. . Downloaded on 16 December 2017.
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