|Scientific Name:||Euphorbia stygiana|
Tithymalus stygianus (H.C.Watson) Soják
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered C2a(i); D ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Cuttelod, A. & Lutz, M.L.|
Euphorbia stygiana is endemic to the region São Lourenço on the island Santa Maria of the Azores. Its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 343 km². The habitat of the species is declining due to agricultural development, change in land use, and invasive species. The total population counts less than 50 mature individuals and has a declining trend. It is therefore classed as Critically Endangered.
|Range Description:||Euphorbia stygiana is endemic to the Azores, where it is confined to the region São Lourenço on the island Santa Maria (Martín et al. 2008). Its EOO is 343 km² (Commission of the European Communities 2009).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population counts less than 50 mature individuals and has a declining trend (Martín et al. 2008).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Euphorbia stygiana grows in beech forests (faial) (Martín et al. 2008). It develops in steep areas that are subject to disturbances. There are two types of habitat: firstly forest clearings or ecotones on saxicolous substrates, secondly slopes including banks of streams, hills, or rock walls where it develops in soil. It can be found in or at the edge of the following Habitats Directive listed habitats (Commission of the European Communities 2009):
|Major Threat(s):||The habitat of the species is declining due to agricultural development, change in land use, and invasive species and the subsequent increase in competition (Martín et al. 2008).|
Euphorbia stygiana is listed on Annex II of the Habitats Directive and under Appendix I of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention).
Necessary conservation and research actions are (Martín et al. 2008):
|Citation:||Bilz, M. 2013. Euphorbia stygiana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 July 2015.|
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