|Scientific Name:||Armeria helodes|
|Species Authority:||F.Martini & Poldini|
Armeria purpurea Koch
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered B1ab(iii,v); C2a(i); D ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Foggi, B. & Abeli, T.|
|Reviewer/s:||Bagella, S. & Bilz, M.|
|Contributor/s:||Grillas, P. & Rhazi, L.|
The Armeria helodes populations in Friuli, Italy, have experienced a severe population reduction and are now only present in seven subpopulations. These subpopulations are severely fragmented and have an extent of occurrence of 60 km². Although all remaining populations are included in a protected area, the number of mature individuals is still decreasing as changes in the water table lead to changes in the remaining habitat. Furthermore, each subpopulation has between five and ten mature individuals, totalling less than 50 surviving plants. This species is therefore listed as Critically Endangered.
Armeria helodes is a species strictly endemic to Italy. It is found in seven very isolated locations in Friuli, with an extent of occurrence of 60 km² and an effective occupied area of 20 ha.
It is a neo-endemic species that resulted from the genetic isolation of Armeria alpina on the Friuli plains during the post-glacial age.
Pignatti (1982) lists this species as also being present in Lombardy but Conti et al. (2005) report this species only for Friuli.
Native:Italy (Italy (mainland))
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The species is considered very rare and is threatened with extinction in Italy. At the beginning of the 20th century it was widespread throughout an area of about 60 km². Currently, it exists in seven isolated locations. The populations are in decline and each of the subpopulations has no more than five to 10 individuals, the total number of individuals is less than 50 (Pignatti et al. 2001).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Armeria helodes is a perennial plant (Hemicryptophyte) that inhabits alkaline marshes of peaty soil that are saturated in water and rich in calcium and magnesium. It occurs in a habitat that is listed in Annex I of the EU Habitats Directive: Alkaline fens (7230). This plant is oligotrophic, heliophilous and an unsuccessful competitor against others species. Flowering occurs during spring (April-May).|
|Major Threat(s):||The main threats to the species are drainage of its habitat, and agricultural pollution with fertilisers and accumulation of organic material.|
This species is classified as Critically Endangered in Italy (Scoppola and Spampinato 2005). It is listed as an important species in Annex II of the Habitats Directive 92/43/CEE. All the existing sites are included in a SCI (Site of Community Interest) but the numbers of mature individuals are still decreasing.
Ex situ conservation measures are recommended. More research on this species is needed.
|Citation:||Foggi, B. & Abeli, T. 2010. Armeria helodes. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 26 May 2013.|
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