Map_thumbnail_large_font

Fritillaria obliqua

Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_onStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
PLANTAE TRACHEOPHYTA LILIOPSIDA LILIALES LILIACEAE

Scientific Name: Fritillaria obliqua
Species Authority: Ker-Gawl.
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B2ab(iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2011-04-11
Assessor(s): Delipetrou, P. & Bazos, I.
Reviewer(s): Bilz, M. & Collett, L.
Justification:
Fritillaria obliqua is a Greek endemic that has a restricted distribution and an area of occupancy of not more than 86 km². The population is declining and many of the subpopulations have less than the minimum viable population of 250 individuals. Thus > 50% of the total area of occupancy of the plant is made up of small isolated patches with a small number of plants and the population can be considered as severely fragmented. Urbanisation, grazing, fires, and collection are the main threats to the species that lead to a continuing decline in extent and quality of the habitat and in the number of mature individuals. It is therefore assessed as Endangered.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

Fritillaria obliqua ssp. obliqua is endemic to Greece and it occurs in Attiki (Parnitha Mt, Penteli Mt, Schinias-Marathonas area, Merenta Mt, Tourkovounia hill) and Evvoia Island (Octhonia Mt, Olympos Mt). It has an extent of occurrence of 1,600 km² and an area of occupancy of 40-50 km² (based on a 2x2 km grid).

The subspecies tuntasia is found in the west Kyklades Islands (Kythnos, Piperi islet off Kythnos, Gyaros, Serifos and Folegandros). However, the presence of the plant on Folegandros and Kythnos requires confirmation. The plant is also reported from Kea but it may have been confused with Fritillaria graeca.

The extent of occurrence of the subspecies tuntasia is 1,000-3,000 km² if the sea between all the islands is included and depending on whether the unconfirmed references on Piperi and Folegandros are included; the islands themselves have a total area of 191–223 km². The area of occupancy is 28-36 km², depending on whether the unconfirmed references on Piperi and Folegandros are included (2x2 km grid).

Overall the extent of occurrence of Fritillaria obliqua is expected to be less than 20,000 km².

Countries:
Native:
Greece (Greece (mainland))
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population of Fritillaria obliqua has been estimated at 1,500 individuals (Commission of the European Communities 2009).

The following populations of Fritillaria obliqua ssp. obliqua are present in Greece:
  • Parnitha Mt (4 locations): Paliomilesi site (100 individuals), Mola plateau (no data), Beletsi peak (200 individuals), Strongyli peak  (250 individuals)
  • Penteli Mt (2-4 locations): no population data
  • Schinias-Marathonas area (4 locations, 2-3 subpopulations): Kynosoura peninsula (c. 3,000 individuals and the largest subpopulation but there are fluctuations depending on meteorological conditions), Drakonera area (50 – 100 individuals), Agia Marina area (50 – 100 individuals), Grammatiko area (50 – 100 individuals)
  • Tourkovounia hill (1 location, 1 subpopulation): habitation area G. Papandreou (200 individuals in 2007), Paleo Psychiko area (200 individuals before 1980, six isolated individuals after 2000). The species was described from the area of Tourkovounia hill in the 19th century at a locality where it is now extinct due to the expansion of urban settlements. This indicates that the species had been much more widespread in Attiki in areas now urbanised.
  • Merenta mountain (1 location, 1 subpopulation): the species was collected there once in the 1980s and there is no recent data on the population (confusion with Fritillaria graeca is possible in this area).
  • Octhonia Mt (1 location, 1 subpopulation): 250 individuals in 2008 (but some of them are morphologically close to F. obliqua ssp. tuntasia).
  • Olympos Mt  (1 location, 1 subpopulation): one collection in 1984, no population data; the area was burned recently.
The current total population size is certainly lower than 10,000 individuals. Most of the subpopulations include 100–250 individuals and this number is considered lower than the minimum viable population of 250 individuals. Thus > 50% of the total area of occupancy of the plant includes small isolated patches with a small number of plants and the population can be considered as severely fragmented.

The species was certainly more widespread in Attiki 100 years ago. The area of occupancy and the total population size have been reduced due to land use changes during this period; however this reduction cannot be quantified. Further loss of habitat and area of occupancy are almost certain for the locations of Tourkovounia and Drakonera and probable for the locations of Agia Marina, Grammatiko, Parnitha, Merenta and Penteli.

Fritillaria obliqua ssp. tuntasia has been reported at the following locations:
  • Kythnos (three locations): over Merichas village and near Chora (5-10 individuals in fruit at both locations); Kastro tis Orias (two individuals in fruit).
  • Serifos (three locations): west central part (200 individuals), north part (25 individuals), central part (20 individuals)
  • Gyaros (one location): central part (15 individuals)
  • There is no population data for Folegandros and Piperi islet but it is almost certain that these subpopulations are small too.
The current total population size is certainly no more than 1,000 individuals. All of the known subpopulations include less than 200 individuals and this number is considered lower than the minimum viable population of 250 individuals. Thus > 50 % of the total area of occupancy of the plant includes small isolated patches with a small number of plants and the population can be considered as severely fragmented.

Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Fritillaria obliqua ssp. obliqua occupies rocky or stony sites with open shrubland on limestone at an altitude of 20-800 m asl. It grows in Juniperus phoenicea or Euphorbia dendroides shrubland, at the margins or clearings of Pinus halepensis forest or Pistacia lentiscus-Quercus coccifera maquis, in phrygana and garrigue. The species prefers clearings, but it often grows in the shade of high shrubs.

Fritillaria obliqua ssp. tuntasia is found in rocky and stony places with phrygana or thin shrub, on various substrates (e.g. limestone, granite) but mainly on schist.
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Bulb collection may be a threat - there is substantial internet trade which is not always licensed.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): All the subpopulations of Fritillaria obliqua ssp. obliqua in Schinias-Marathonas, except the one on the Kynosoura peninsula, are threatened by urban development. This is particularly acute for the subpopulation at Drakonera which grows on undeveloped land patches between houses and has suffered severe reduction during the last 30 years.

The subpopulation at Tourkovounia has also suffered severe reduction during the last 100 years and especially during the last 35 years; the surviving plants are imminently threatened by urban development. The locations of Parnitha, except for the Mola plateau which is within the National Forest Park of Parnitha, are threatened by housing development (part of the subpopulation at Beletsi peak was destroyed by building).

Grazing is a threat at Agia Marina and Grammatiko, at part of the Kynosoura peninsula and possibly at Mt. Penteli. Grazing causes a decline in the sexual reproduction of the plant. Grazing is a threat at all the locations of the subspecies tuntasia.

Although the plant is a geophyte, wild fire is probably a threat at Agia Marina, Grammatiko, Penteli Mt, Parnitha Mt and Merenta Mt. Bulb collection may be a further threat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Fritillaria obliqua is listed in Annex IV of the Habitats Directive and it is listed under Appendix I of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention). Fritillaria tuntasia is also included in Appendix I of the Bern Convention as a synonym.

Fritillaria obliqua ssp. obliqua is protected in Greece by Presidential Decree 67/81. The locations of Parnitha are included in the National Forest Park of Parnitha and in the Natura 2000 site GR300001; the locations of Kynosoura and Drakonera are included in the Natura 2000 site GR300003. It is included in the Red Data Book (Phitos et al. 1995, 2009).

Fritillaria obliqua ssp. tuntasia is also protected in Greece by Presidential Decree 67/81. The location Kastro tis Orias (Kythnos) is included in the Natura 2000 site GR422010 and the locations at central Serifos are included in the Natura 2000 site GR422009. The subspecies is included in the Red Data Book (Phitos et al. 2009).

Citation: Delipetrou, P. & Bazos, I. 2011. Fritillaria obliqua. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 July 2014.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please fill in the feedback form so that we can correct or extend the information provided