|Scientific Name:||Fritillaria obliqua|
|Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B2ab(iii,v) ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Delipetrou, P. & Bazos, I.|
|Reviewer/s:||Bilz, M. & Collett, L.|
Fritillaria obliqua is a Greek endemic that has a restricted distribution and an area of occupancy of not more than 86 km². The population is declining and many of the subpopulations have less than the minimum viable population of 250 individuals. Thus > 50% of the total area of occupancy of the plant is made up of small isolated patches with a small number of plants and the population can be considered as severely fragmented. Urbanisation, grazing, fires, and collection are the main threats to the species that lead to a continuing decline in extent and quality of the habitat and in the number of mature individuals. It is therefore assessed as Endangered.
Fritillaria obliqua ssp. obliqua is endemic to Greece and it occurs in Attiki (Parnitha Mt, Penteli Mt, Schinias-Marathonas area, Merenta Mt, Tourkovounia hill) and Evvoia Island (Octhonia Mt, Olympos Mt). It has an extent of occurrence of 1,600 km² and an area of occupancy of 40-50 km² (based on a 2x2 km grid).
The subspecies tuntasia is found in the west Kyklades Islands (Kythnos, Piperi islet off Kythnos, Gyaros, Serifos and Folegandros). However, the presence of the plant on Folegandros and Kythnos requires confirmation. The plant is also reported from Kea but it may have been confused with Fritillaria graeca.
The extent of occurrence of the subspecies tuntasia is 1,000-3,000 km² if the sea between all the islands is included and depending on whether the unconfirmed references on Piperi and Folegandros are included; the islands themselves have a total area of 191–223 km². The area of occupancy is 28-36 km², depending on whether the unconfirmed references on Piperi and Folegandros are included (2x2 km grid).
Overall the extent of occurrence of Fritillaria obliqua is expected to be less than 20,000 km².
Native:Greece (Greece (mainland))
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
The population of Fritillaria obliqua has been estimated at 1,500 individuals (Commission of the European Communities 2009).
The following populations of Fritillaria obliqua ssp. obliqua are present in Greece:
The species was certainly more widespread in Attiki 100 years ago. The area of occupancy and the total population size have been reduced due to land use changes during this period; however this reduction cannot be quantified. Further loss of habitat and area of occupancy are almost certain for the locations of Tourkovounia and Drakonera and probable for the locations of Agia Marina, Grammatiko, Parnitha, Merenta and Penteli.
Fritillaria obliqua ssp. tuntasia has been reported at the following locations:
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Fritillaria obliqua ssp. obliqua occupies rocky or stony sites with open shrubland on limestone at an altitude of 20-800 m asl. It grows in Juniperus phoenicea or Euphorbia dendroides shrubland, at the margins or clearings of Pinus halepensis forest or Pistacia lentiscus-Quercus coccifera maquis, in phrygana and garrigue. The species prefers clearings, but it often grows in the shade of high shrubs.
Fritillaria obliqua ssp. tuntasia is found in rocky and stony places with phrygana or thin shrub, on various substrates (e.g. limestone, granite) but mainly on schist.
All the subpopulations of Fritillaria obliqua ssp. obliqua in Schinias-Marathonas, except the one on the Kynosoura peninsula, are threatened by urban development. This is particularly acute for the subpopulation at Drakonera which grows on undeveloped land patches between houses and has suffered severe reduction during the last 30 years.
The subpopulation at Tourkovounia has also suffered severe reduction during the last 100 years and especially during the last 35 years; the surviving plants are imminently threatened by urban development. The locations of Parnitha, except for the Mola plateau which is within the National Forest Park of Parnitha, are threatened by housing development (part of the subpopulation at Beletsi peak was destroyed by building).
Grazing is a threat at Agia Marina and Grammatiko, at part of the Kynosoura peninsula and possibly at Mt. Penteli. Grazing causes a decline in the sexual reproduction of the plant. Grazing is a threat at all the locations of the subspecies tuntasia.
Although the plant is a geophyte, wild fire is probably a threat at Agia Marina, Grammatiko, Penteli Mt, Parnitha Mt and Merenta Mt. Bulb collection may be a further threat.
Fritillaria obliqua is listed in Annex IV of the Habitats Directive and it is listed under Appendix I of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention). Fritillaria tuntasia is also included in Appendix I of the Bern Convention as a synonym.
Fritillaria obliqua ssp. obliqua is protected in Greece by Presidential Decree 67/81. The locations of Parnitha are included in the National Forest Park of Parnitha and in the Natura 2000 site GR300001; the locations of Kynosoura and Drakonera are included in the Natura 2000 site GR300003. It is included in the Red Data Book (Phitos et al. 1995, 2009).
Fritillaria obliqua ssp. tuntasia is also protected in Greece by Presidential Decree 67/81. The location Kastro tis Orias (Kythnos) is included in the Natura 2000 site GR422010 and the locations at central Serifos are included in the Natura 2000 site GR422009. The subspecies is included in the Red Data Book (Phitos et al. 2009).
|Citation:||Delipetrou, P. & Bazos, I. 2011. Fritillaria obliqua. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 09 March 2014.|
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