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Himantoglossum adriaticum 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Liliopsida Orchidales Orchidaceae

Scientific Name: Himantoglossum adriaticum
Species Authority: H.Baumann
Taxonomic Notes: It is closely related to H. hyrzinum and was often confused with this species.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2010-06-24
Assessor(s): Dostalova, A., Montagnani, C., Hodálová, I., Jogan, N., Király, G., Ferakova, V. & Bernhardt, K.G.
Reviewer(s): Bilz, M. & Collett, L.
Justification:
European regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
EU 27 regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)

This European endemic orchid has a wide range and stable populations in most parts of its range although there are declines in other parts. It is subject to several threats including intensification of agriculture, forest management, land abandonment, invasive species, and collection. However those threats are not likely to cause significant population declines in the near future and the species is therefore listed as Least Concern. It occurs in protected areas throughout its range and continuous monitoring of the populations is recommended.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This orchid is a European endemic and is found in Austria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Slovakia, Slovenia. The Czech Republic is at the boarder of the distribution.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Austria; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Croatia; Czech Republic; Hungary; Italy; Slovakia; Slovenia
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population is stable in parts of its range, but there is an overall decline.

In Slovakia, there are approximately ten localities, stable and increasing at some localities, and the populations are rather small. In Hungary, it grows in 20-25 localities and has been stable in the last 10 years, but there was habitat loss before that. In Czech Republic, there is one locality with 30-40 individuals. The Italian populations are stable. Austria hosts at least 50 localities and the bigger populations are stable. The populations in Slovenia are slightly declining, there the plant is scattered in the vine growing regions.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This orchid is found in open oak forests and dry grassland. It often occurs in secondary habitats such as road sides, vineyards and abandoned mines. It can be found from lowland to hill regions.

The following habitats from the Habitats Directe are suitable for this species (Commission of the European Communities 2009):
  • 40A0 Subcontinental peri-Pannonic scrub
  • 6210 Semi-natural dry grasslands and scrubland facies on calcareous substrates (Festuco-Brometalia)
  • 6240 Sub-Pannonic steppic grasslands
  • 91H0 Pannonian woods with Quercus pubescens
Systems:Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: It is collected from wild populations for ornamental purposes.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are several threats to this species. Change in land use such as abandonment of grassland on slopes leads to succession and therefore competition for this orchid. A similar threat is posed by the introduction of invasive species, namely Robinia sp., that cause shading. The intensification of agriculture, high rates of fertilisation, and inappropriate forest management lead to a degradation of the species habitat. Threats to the species itself are wild boars that eat the plants and collectors that pick it for ornamental use. Mining is a local threat in some areas.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Himantoglossum adriaticum is listed on Annex II of the Habitats Directive. All orchids are included under Annex B of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

It is included in several national red lists:
  • Critically Endangered in Czech Republic and Slovakia
  • Endangered in Austria and Hungary
  • Vulnerable in Slovenia
  • Near Threatened in Croatia
It is under national protection in Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia and Slovenia. Throughout its range it is found in protected areas. In Slovakia, the species is found in two Natura 2000 sites (81% of all localities) and also in small scale nature reserves. In Slovenia, Austria and Czech Republic it it also occurs in Natura 2000 sites. In Hungary, 50% of localities are in protected areas and more than 50% in Natura 2000 sites but the two biggest populations are not in a protected area.

Monitoring is taking place in some sites in Austria and Slovenia and future monitoring of the localities is recommended.

Citation: Dostalova, A., Montagnani, C., Hodálová, I., Jogan, N., Király, G., Ferakova, V. & Bernhardt, K.G. 2011. Himantoglossum adriaticum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T162219A5559772. . Downloaded on 25 May 2017.
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