|Scientific Name:||Onopordum nogalesii|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered B2ac(iv); C2a(ii) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Bilz, M., Cuttelod, A. & Moreno Saiz, J.C.|
Onopordum nogalesii is listed as Critically Endangered because its area of occupancy is probably lower than 1 km², its population size is estimated to be between 50 and 150 mature individuals, all in one single location, and decreasing trends and extreme fluctuations in the number of mature individuals have been reported. Overgrazing and seed predation by insects limit the expansion of the species.
|Range Description:||This plant is endemic to the island of Fuerteventura, Canary Islands,
Native:Spain (Canary Is.)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Total population size fluctuates between 50 and 150 individuals (S. Scholz pers. comm. 2011), mainly affected by climatic factors. Scholz reported 70 individuals (2004). In the last few years a decline in the number of individuals has been observed.
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This species grows in slopes of moderate to low inclination, usually near the bottom of the ravine. It has preference for gullies, carved by runoff water, usually on stony clay soils, probably due to their favourable moisture conditions. Frequent accompanying species include Euphorbia regis-jubae, Kleinia neriifolia and Launaea arborescens, Salsola vermiculata, Lycium intricatum and Rubia fruticosa. In winter, dense communities of nitrophilous therophytes such as Chenopodium murale, Patellifolia patellaris, Emex spinosa, Echium bonneti, Reichardia tingitana and Stipa capensis, appear in its habitat.
It is a very adaptable species that can tolerate some presence of herbivores and soil nitrification. Seed production and germination are very irregular, depending on heavy rains and seed predation by several insects. Pollination is by Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Coleoptera.
|Use and Trade:||The species is subject to illegal collection for ornamental or research purposes.|
|Major Threat(s):||This species takes profit from the presence of a certain amount of grazing species, due to its nitrophilous character. As livestock pressure increases, an important negative effect on the population can be observed, for flowers are predated (Scholz 2004). Seed predation by birds and insects, low germination rates and low survival of seedlings have also a great influence in population dynamics. A nearby passageway and the construction of tourist infrastructures located 2-3 km from the population is a potential threat. Moreover, it has been observed that it has been collected illegally for ornamental purposes and by scientists.|
Onopordum nogalesii is listed as priority species on Annex II of the Habitats Directive and is listed under Appendix I of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention). It is included as species "En peligro de extinción" in the national catalogue of threatened species, and in the catalogue of protected species of the Canary Islands, under the name Onopordon nogalesii. It is classed as CR B2ac(iv); C2a(ii) in the Spanish Red List 2008 (Moreno 2008).
The whole population occurs in the protected area Parque Natural de Jandía (SCI). Seeds are stored in the germplasm bank of the Jardín Botánico Viera y Clavijo and in the E.T.S. de Ingenieros Agrónomos de Madrid.
It is necessary to carry out surveys on the demography and reproductive biology of the species. Proposed conservation measures include the control of livestock in the Parque Natural de Jandía. Seed storage in germplasm banks and reintroduction measures are recommended.
|Citation:||Scholz, S. 2013. Onopordum nogalesii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 August 2015.|
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